Siinviidatus tegelevad autorid võimupositsiooni, võimu ja managerismi küsimustega, mis kõik on juhtimiskirjanduses palju tähelepanu saanud, kuid mille käsitlused nii praktikates kui kirjalikes allikates on sageli mitmetimõistetavad või sootuks kontseptualiseerimata. Siinviidatu võiks pretendeerida magistriõppes juhtimiskursuste seminaritekstiks.
In his survey of the ideological context of employment relations, Godard (2011) identified five perspectives on management, which (taken together) have a left-right political character.
Pluralistid ja manageristid
What differentiates orthodox pluralists from managerialist scholars, according to Godard, is the way they conceive of conflict in the employment relationship. While orthodox pluralist scholars consider that conflict is legitimate and requires governance mechanisms, their managerialist counterparts hold it to be illegitimate. Specifically, managerialists regard overt manifestations of conflict in the employment relationship as the result of a misunderstanding on the part of employees or other organisational dysfunctions, including suboptimal management practices.
Juhid teavad, mida teevad …
To critics, the self-referential aspect of a definition according to which managers know best how to achieve the goals they define reveals managerialism as a self-promoting ideology (Klikauer, 2013; Locke and Spender, 2011). To illustrate their criticism, these scholars point to the way managerialists have entrenched themselves in all corners of the power structure of firms, museums, government bodies, universities, hospitals and other public administrations (Baddeley, 2013; Gordon and Whitchurch, 2010; Overeem and Tholen, 2011; Rhodes, 1996; Stolz, 2017).
Beyond sprawling technocracy, one of the most notable manifestations of managerialism has been a progressive concentration of power in the hands of professional managers who move between industry sectors (Abbott, 2015; Barberis, 2013; Klikauer, 2013; Locke and Spender, 2011). As executives have secured ever more power and income, middle management has diminished in its relative size and power base (Ehrenreich, 2006; Thomas and Dunkerley, 1999; Wheatley, 1992). Simultaneously, the authority of experts and non-management professionals has eroded (Lynch, 2014; Shepherd, 2018; Smith and Hussey, 2010; Vincent, 2011; Ward, 2011).
The central thesis of this essay is that the rise of managerialism is best analysed as a manifestation of the decline of managerial authority and the rise of managerial power within workplaces. […] As will be explained, this distinction is not to be identified with that of Aristotelian origin and taken up notably (if in differing directions) by Grotius, Hobbes and Spinoza, between potentia and potestas. Indeed, speaking broadly, these thinkers saw potentia as power (capacity to act) and potestas as legitimised or lawful power, whether realised or not (Campos, 2012: 89–101).
Võimu(positsiooni) kaks nägu
Specifically, their standard approach has been to attribute indifferently to authority two meanings, one derived from Weber (1947) and based on legitimate domination, the other derived from Barnard (1938) and based on subordinate concession, or authorisation.
In summary, managerialism as a management practice is characterised by authoritarian forms of control rather than workplace relationships based on authoritativeness. As management mutated into managerialism, senior managers secured more decision-making power, middle managers were eliminated and technical experts ignored.
Ei midagi enne, ega etteantut
As it emerges from the work of Barnard, Friedrich and Popper, authority develops from cooperative exchanges between managers and colleagues. Authoritative management, therefore, requires valid reasoning and critical argument.
Authority as a source of power is thus not simply a scholarly theme, or a managerial preference. Indeed, as Popper argued, it is also a social and democratic concern.
Spillane, R., & Joullié, J.-E. (2021). The decline of authority and the rise of managerialism. Organization. https://doi.org/10.1177/13505084211061242