Pole suurt kahtlust, et siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks kuuluda (normatiivne perspektiiv) paljude nii politsei, organisatsiooni kui poliitikakujunduse kursuste seminaritekstide hulka. Ja tundub, et sellega on kiire, sest teksti keskne arutlus võimust sotsioloogilise (kuidas asjad on) ja normatiivse poliitikateoreetilise (kuidas asjad peaksid olema) perspektiivi kaudu, on igapäevaelus, selle mõistmisel ja korraldamisel kesksed küsimused.

Tekst on vabalevis ja pikki kommentaare ei vaja ning tegelikult oleks nende toomine siin üsna keeruline, sest võib terviku tähenduses tunduda ebakohane.


Power is a family resemblance concept, which changes meaning relative to different language games (see Haugaard 2010, 2020, pp. 1–17). The same can be said for the concept of crime. Both the words ‘power’ and ‘crime’ are conceptual tools, which have slightly different meanings within the theoretical context of, what I shall term, the sociological language game (the is language game), and normative political theory (the ought language game).

Esmapilgus keeruline, kuid vajalik tõdemus:

Words, such as crime and power, are conceptual tools that enable us, as observing social scientists, to make sense of social order. Power and crime are socially constructed signifiers, or words, that refer to signifieds in the world-out-there. For the social sciences, the world-out-there is itself a social construction, which creates a double hermeneutic effect, whereby signifiers, which are social constructions, refer to signifieds that are also social constructions.

Aluspõhimõtted (vajalikud kõikidele tudengitele):

In the social sciences, the two most significant language games are sociological theory, which explores the is-aspect of social order, and normative political theory, which analyses the ought-aspect. […] Ideal types are a distillation from reality that gets to the essence of some phenomenon but that rarely exist in the world-out-there in a pure form.

Kuriteost sotsioloogiliselt:

Sociologically, unlike in everyday understanding, when power structures are perceived as legitimate, the objective of punishment of a crime is not so much to correct or deter the criminal, it is for the members of a society to reaffirm, within their collective consciousness, the shared social norms that they consider legitimate (see Durkheim 2014, pp. 3049, Lukes 1973, pp. 160–1; 260–2).

Kuriteost normatiivselt:

In the normative language game, the signifier ‘crime’ refers to a violation of a hypothetical order-of-thing that is constructed in the mind of the observing political theorist as normatively desirable for society.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks uskumustest:

The less powerful complies because he or she believes that the powerful has a right to command or, what Weber terms, a belief in legitimacy (Weber 1978, p. 213).

Haugaard, M. (2022). Power and crime: a theoretical sketchJournal of Political Power, 1-15.