Standardiseeritud ja suure avalikkuse tähelepanu või surve all olevates organisatsioonides on avaliku improvisatsiooni võimalused sageli ahtakesed. Avalikus sektoris üldisemalt on eksimine lubatud ainult retooriliselt. Praktiliselt ootab sageli vähemalt hukkamõist või siis karistus või vallandamine. Sestap ongi ametnikud sageli eksimatud. Kui avaliku sektori töökogemust ei ole, siis piisab meedia jälgimisest ning lausa stamplausetena korrutatakse, kuidas kõik on tehtud õigesti või mina midagi valesti ei teinud. Kes teab, võib-olla ongi nii.
Siinviidatu võiks lisaks organisatsioonihuvilistele huvi pakkuda ka turvalisusega tegelejatele, sest uurimisalused andmed pärinevad just sellest sektorist.

Kontekstiks:

Seen as a positive force for change, studies encourage organizations to develop a context where improvisation can flourish […] However, in a high reliability organization (HRO), or safety-critical organization, where processes are often standardized for good reasons of coordination, predictability and security, improvisation assumes a contrasting character (Wolbers, Boersma, & Groenewegen, 2018). In these contexts, improvisation may occur to cope with transient ambiguous circumstances (Miner et al., 2001) and to manage the unforeseen (Weick, 1998). In such high pressure and unpredictable environments, improvisation is discouraged, becoming a hidden process (Cunha, Clegg, & Kamoche, 2012), and as a result, the potential to learn is significantly constrained.

Uurimisküsimus:

Under what conditions and processes does hidden improvisation lead to organizational learning?

Improvisatsioonist:

Improvisation is thus an intentional break from traditional procedures to enact an immediate solution in ambiguous circumstances with the resources available. […] most of the prior literature on improvisation locates the phenomenon within an organizational context where experimentation and the potential disruption of existing practices is encouraged

Varjatud improvisatsiooni tingumustest:

Meeting these conditions of experimentation, trust and communication can be a challenge in safety-critical organizations, as the outcomes of improvisation are not always positive […] improvisation is influenced by systemic organizational commitments (Schildt et al., 2020) and, as a result, developing a culture of experimentation can be severely constrained due to the high risks associated with errors (Lipshitz, Popper, & Oz, 1996), or discouraged by punishments that might accompany improvisation that is deemed unacceptable (Fisher & Barrett, 2019).

Improvisatsioonist turvalisusorganisatsioonides:

in a safety-critical organization, where improvising is discouraged or dangerous, improvising is more likely to be hidden, which constrains opportunities for organizational learning.

Vihjed järeldustest:

Our findings reveal that hidden improvisation occurred, in most cases, disconnected from wider organizational processes, due to the autonomous working of the crews […] Our findings show that once the hidden improvisation becomes visible, middle management plays a significant role in connecting hidden improvisation to wider learning through a process of brokering between the improvising firefighters and wider audiences, and this is influenced by several factors

Macpherson, A., Breslin, D., & Akinci, C. (2021). Organizational Learning From Hidden Improvisation. Organization Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406211035509