Füüsilise keskkonna mõju inimkäitumisele on väljaspool kahtlust, kuid see on liiga üldine teadmine. Siinviidatu on kasulik lugemine igale üksikisikule aga ka organisatsiooni- ja poliitika kujundajatele, sest puudutab midagi, mis on kõigile oluline: tervis.
In the U.S., less than 5% of the adult population exercise for at least 30 minutes per day. […] Nearly 40% of the adult population in the U.S. thus is obese, with 72% classified as overweight, which includes obesity (CDC, 2018). Similar rates are observed in Australia (67%; Australian Government, 2019), Canada (61%; Vogel, 2017), China (Radu, 2019), and also the U.K. (63%; Dearden, 2017).
Mida teha? Mõned soovitused.
Intervention strategies are plenty, ranging from “nudges” from behavioral economics (Matjasko et al., 2016; Roberto & Kawachi, 2014), low voice pitch in health communications (Chan, 2020), drawing upon social and other in-group norms (Moreno-Jaimes & Meza, 2020; Yun & Silk, 2011), educating about the benefits of leading healthy lifestyles (Kelder et al., 1995; Lawrence et al., 2009), to using front-ofpack or back-of-pack nutrition labeling in order to make it easier for individuals to find healthier foods (Barreiro-Hurlé et al., 2010).
In this research, we focus on a different environmental factor—how bright or dark it is. […] In this research we examine other cognitive and motivational effects of self-awareness (Carver & Scheier, 1978). Namely, attention onto the self leads to conscious awareness of oneself (Duval & Wicklund, 1972; Silvia & Gendolla, 2001). Per Objective Self-Awareness (OSA) theory, self-aware individuals consider the self as an object of evaluation, and they initiate a self-comparison where they evaluate the current state against relevant selfstandards. For example, people become more motivated to help others when altruism self-standards are salient (Gibbons & Wicklund, 1982).
Valgusest ja käitumiskontrollist:
Consequently, brightness can lead people to feel they are being observed. For example, bright environments decrease anonymity, while darkness increases it (Gergen et al., 1973; Page & Moss, 1976).
Juba Platon arvas:
In Plato’s chariot allegory, the bright horse represents reflection, and the dark horse represents impulse.
Vihjed lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:
Specifically, being in a bright (vs. dark) room can increase the choice of healthy (vs. less) healthy foods (Studies 1, 3) and increase exercise intentions (Study 2). This effect is argued to occur because brightness leads to one being more accountable to the self; and with the recognition that one has not lived up to their health self-standards, people are then motivated to take actions to reach those self-standards (Studies 2, 3).
For example, our findings could suggest that exercise venues such as gyms should be bright, in order to prompt a greater sense of self-awareness (especially with other people around). Similarly, restaurants and fast food outlets could use brighter lighting to encourage healthier food choices.
Chan, E. Y. (2022). Brightness Motivates Healthy Behaviors: The Role of Self-Accountability. Environment and Behavior, 54(2), 363–382. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139165211026609