Proloog vägivallale

Avalikus ruumis toimuval vägivallal on sageli palju pealnägijaid. Või tuleks neid nimetada pealtvaatajateks? Hoidun hoolega kriitikanooltest nii nägijate kui vaatajate suunas. Iga olukord on erinev ja umbes-hinnangud ei aita kuidagi kaasa mõistmisele või mõtestamisele.
Nö filmimisajastul on liikvel palju videoklippe erilaadilistest vägivallasündmustest alates lastevahelistest kaklustest koolis kuni terrorismiaktideni. Ometi on vähe saadaval kvaliteetseid videotel põhinevaid analüüse kriminoloogia-policingu valdkonnas. Sestap siinviidatu oma koha leidiski. Pealegi on tegu vabalevis oleva tekstiga.


Support for the ‘bystander effect’ – the idea that larger the number of people present, less likely are they to intervene when others are in need – has weakened over time. Third parties are less passive than previously thought.

Üllatused uurimustöö alguses:

In conducting a video analysis of street violence, our original aim was to identify the conditions that facilitate intervention. After viewing several videos, we observed how frequently bystanders engaged in collective de-escalatory action. This was surprising because violence presents an uncertain environment to be caught in, perhaps more so for the bystander.

Täpsustunud eesmärk:

The central objective of this paper became, therefore, to identify the processes that precede and facilitate collective intervention.

Pealtvaatajate kogunemine võib osutuda oluliseks julgustuseks sekkumiseks:

third parties may be more likely to intervene if they see that others who are watching could assist or sound the alarm if they get in danger, or they may be prompted to intervene as they recognize that others are inclined to do the same.

Artikli panus:

Our work advances prior research by revealing the situational process that is conducive to the collectivization of de-escalatory behaviour: bodily aligned bystanders generate situational groups which increase the number of intervening third parties.

Oluline järeldus:

Circular formations not only provide more opportunities for each third party to notice their monitoring of one another, but they also more clearly separate third parties who are attentive to the incident from others who are not. Both features facilitate the development of a shared sense of being together in the same situation.

Weenink, D., Dhattiwala, R., & van der Duin, D. (2021). Circles of Peace. A Video Analysis of Situational Group Formation and Collective Third-Party Intervention in Violent Incidents. The British Journal of Criminology