Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks suurt huvi pakkuda kõikidele organisatsioonihuvilistele, sest keskendub keskastmejuhtide praktikaid raamistavatele pingetele. Kel huvi organisatsioonikäitumist mõista ja/või muuta, see võiks siit mõndagi leida.


“‘These people [i.e., middle managers] are costing the company huge amounts of money through running their own agendas, and doing the kiss-up kick-down style of leading. They may have the very senior leaders fooled, but not the teams who are doing the actual work and responsible for the numbers’. […] career strategy at workplaces: Middle managers who use flattery in interactions with superiors (i.e., ‘kiss-up’), but become exploitative and abusive when interacting with their subordinates (i.e., ‘kick-down’).” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 2)

Tõuge uurimustööks:

“some middle managers regularly engage in Kiss-Up-Kick-Down (KUKD) behaviours – a phenomenon that, although apparently prevalent in practice, has not received any scholarly attention.” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 2)

Autorid lubavad:

“In our analysis, we focus on middle management, i.e., the decision-makers who link the strategic apex with the operating core (Mintzberg, 1989) because their role entails extensive vertical code switching – i.e., the act of regularly alternating between behavioural patterns that are directed toward higher-power and lower-power interaction partners (Anicich and Hirsh, 2017), and, as such, logically affords more opportunity to engage in KUKD than the other organizational hierarchy levels.” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 2)

Keskastmejuhid pingete keskmes:

“while feeling pressure from lower-level managers trying to push their way up. This pressure further intensifies as organizations seek to generally decrease their internal levels of hierarchy or replace them through technology (Gratton, 2011; Safak and Farrar, 2021; Tschang and Almirall, 2021). Accordingly, the pressure to outdo others can be considered particularly strong in middle management and therefore creates a fertile breeding ground for the KUKD phenomenon.[” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 2)

Ümberlülitumine ühelt strateegialt teisele:

“KUKD describes strategic vertical code switching (Anicich and Hirsh, 2017) in which middle managers alternate between kissing-up (when addressing upper hierarchical levels) and kicking-down (when addressing lower hierarchical levels).” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 2)

KUKD kontseptuaalne mudel:

Kaht strateegiat iseloomustavad praktikad:

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“In the vein of phenomenon-based theorizing (Fisher et al., 2021; Van de Ven, 2007), our framework offers useful insights for organizations that want to go beyond anecdotal evidence and avoid promoting KUKD managers. Specifically, we posit that a central problem of KUKD derives from resource-poor middle managers who are particularly close to their promotion (Garcia et al., 2013): Such managers presume that their KUKD behaviour will pay off in terms of resource gains that are relevant for their promotion.” (Gerpott and Van Quaquebeke, p. 22)

Gerpott, F. H., & Van Quaquebeke, N. (n.d.). Kiss-Up-Kick-Down to Get Ahead: A Resource Perspective on How, When, Why, and With Whom Middle Managers Use Ingratiatory and Exploitative Behaviours to Advance Their Careers. Journal of Management Studies, n/a(n/a), 1–29.