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Kontekstiks (peamiselt USA tähenduses):

Officer-involved shootings (OIS) have a substantial impact on police–community relationships (President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015). Several high-profile incidents over the past decade have reignited public criticism of police agencies’ use of force practices and policies. […] The timing of investigations after OIS has emerged as a critical issue. There is public pressure in high-profile cases to offer an expedited resolution to these investigations (Phillips, 2018). This demand is counterbalanced by policies created through collective bargaining agreements with police unions to delay investigations, providing officers a “bill of rights” that guides their legal representation (keenan & Walker, 2004).

Autorite ambitsioon:

The present study expands scientific knowledge on officer recall after an OIS, specifically whether changes in the timing of interviews between immediate and delayed periods after OIS affect memory recall. Our goal is establishing a baseline representation of police officers’ memory recall after OIS training scenarios to build upon for future research that explores the influence of the unique stressors associated with these actual events.

Menetlustaktikaline küsimus:

Traditionally, police investigators suggested officers involved in an OIS incident should be interviewed shortly after the event for the most accurate memory recall. An alternate perspective, to delay the interview for 2 days, has gained recent attention, as the additional time allows for rest and for the officer to process the event


Our research team collaborated with the participating law enforcement agency (see Data section) to create a live-action OIS simulation for their routine in-service active armed offender (AAO) training (see Armstrong et al., 2014). […] The scenario involved an armed suspect and two victims. Officers would approach an apartment with assistance from a landlord and resolve an incident by addressing the threat posed by the armed suspect. The scenario was designed to place officers in a situation where they would likely be required to use force against an active armed individual.

Vihjed kokkuvõttest:

Overall, we did not find an effect of question timing on the ability of police officers to recall information after an OIS training scenario. […] Our study suggests officers recall, on average, 73.5% of the threat details after OIS incidents. Although this finding is encouraging, it is higher than estimates in the two other studies and still suggests on average 26.5% of the most important details required to reconstruct these events are forgotten.

Schnell, C., Spencer, M. D., Mancik, A., Porter, L. E., Ready, J., & Alpert, G. P. (2021). Expanding Research on Investigations of Officer-Involved Shootings: An Experimental Evaluation of Question Timing on Police Officers’ Memory Recall. Criminal Justice and Behavior.