Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et n-ö lepinguliste töötajate osa ja selliste töötajate, kes organisatsioonis töötades ei pea ennast organisatsiooniga igaveseks seotuks, tundub aina suurenevat. Selline dünaamiline töökeskkond seab personalisüsteemidele organisatsioonis mõnevõrra teistsugused tingimused. Siinviidatust võiks ideid ammutada kõik organisatsioonidest huvitatud, aga ka igaüks individuaalselt.


The rise of online labor platforms (OLPs) like Uber, Fiverr, and Upwork has stimulated interest in how human resource management (HRM) practice and theory apply to gig workers (Duggan et al., 2020; Kuhn & Maleki, 2017; Meijerink & Keegan, 2019).

Lepingulistest töötajatest:

Kang, Morris & Snell (2007, p. 244) reinforce this stating: “Contract workers generally offer noncore and low-level skills and knowledge, and thereby have relatively little potential to help modify and renew core knowledge bases of a firm.” Lepak & Snell (1999, p. 40) originally conceived that limited or no HRM activities apply to contractors due to “limited value-creating potential.” The message reinforced by the model is that contractors are not key to value creation. By default, they are excluded from (many) HRM activities (Cross & Swart, 2022; McKeown & Pichault, 2021).

Autorid seavad fookuse:

This article considers the alignment between the value/ uniqueness of human capital, employment mode and HRM practices based on insights from OLPs.


Lepak and Snell (1999) introduced the HR architecture model to go beyond the idea that firms make or buy human capital (i.e., the knowledge, skills, and abilities of workers). The model predicts that firms both develop (make) human capital within the bounds of the firm as well as relying on the external labor market to access (buy) human capital. […] Human capital value refers to “the ratio of strategic benefits to customers derived from skills relative to the costs incurred” (Lepak & Snell, 1999, p. 350). Workers with high levels of value are seen as core to a firm’s competitive advantage (Barney, 1991) and have employment contracts with the firm to ensure their skills are developed and deployed correctly (Williamson, 1975) and are aligned to the organization’s strategic goals (Barney, 1991).

Arhitektuurist kokkuvõtlikult:

Summarizing, the HR architecture proposes a configurational approach to the management of human capital where alignment is sought among human capital characteristics (i.e., value and uniqueness), employment modes (i.e., employment vs. contracting), and HRM practices (i.e., coherent bundles; Kang et al., 2007; Lepak & Snell, 1999; Luo et al., 2021).

Lepingulistest töötajatest n-ö platvormitöö näitel:

Platform ecosystems differ: Platforms do not “own” the human capital of workers who create value and do not enter employment relationships with platform workers (Aloisi, 2020; Jacobides et al., 2018). Instead, platform firms use algorithm based technology to closely monitor and regulate external (human) resources in an effort to ensure work quality and reliability in servicing requesters’ needs.


First, “classic” gig workers are often called app-workers (Howcroft & Bergvall-Kåreborn, 2019) and include independent contractors performing on-location activities such as food delivery, ride-hailing, and other in-person services coordinated on-demand via app by a platform firm (De Stefano, 2015).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

The HR architecture model can be extended and enriched by incorporating perspectives that allow contractors to come to the fore, and for the HRM activities developed to manage them to be recognized and systematically studied, rather than overlooked.

Keegan, A., & Meijerink, J. (2022). Dynamism and realignment in the HR architecture: Online labor platform ecosystems and the key role of contractorsHuman Resource Management.