Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjusel. Esiteks, tööjõuvoolavus on ühiskonna kõiki kihte puudutav küsimus. Teiseks, tegemist on kirjandusülevaatega, mille metoodikas ja rakendamises on pakkuda mõndagi nii uurijatele kui tudengitele.


For individual employees, turnover is often emotionally stressful (Klotz & Bolino, 2016), with financial and other consequences. Individuals who leave organizations risk losing contact with former colleagues (Boswell et al., 2005) and employment benefits like health insurance (Vardaman et al., 2008).


The first major theory of turnover was proposed by March and Simon (1958), who suggested that ease of movement and desirability of movement were central concepts to explain how organizational and individual factors contribute to the ‘stay or leave’ decision of an employee.

Varasemad meta-analüüsid:

Meta-analyses revealed antecedents to turnover but provided limited advancement in conceptualizing turnover (Jiang et al., 2012; Rubenstein et al., 2018). Narrative turnover reviews (Holtom et al., 2008; Hom et al., 2017; Morrell et al., 2001; Porter & Steers, 1973; Winterton, 2004) summarized turnover theories, but rarely reported criteria for including literature as proposed by Pickering and Byrne (2014).

Autorid avavad ja lubavad:

Using a structured approach, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state of knowledge of turnover, first identifying broad patterns, then mapping developments in theory and advances in methodology.


Systematic literature reviews are increasingly used in management and social science (Denyer & Tranfield, 2009; Macpherson & Jones, 2010; Thomas & Tee, 2021). For this review, the 15-steps method developed by Pickering and Byrne (2014) was adapted and applied, as shown in Figure 1.


A Google Scholar citation analysis (August 2020) revealed the most cited article was Huselid (1995) on the impact of human resource management practices on turnover and other organizational outcomes, with almost 13 000 citations. Two articles on organizational commitment were the next most highly cited (Porter et al., 1974: around 10 000 citations; Meyer et al., 2002: almost 9000 citations).

Taksonoomiad ja tüpoloogiad:

Turnover as a concept has been an area for refinement, with Dalton et al. (1982) introducing a taxonomy differentiating between functional and dysfunctional turnover and Abelson (1987) distinguishing avoidable and unavoidable turnover based on the extent of organizational control. […] Vande Griek (2020) introduced a typology of employees based on proactive personality and focus on organizational career growth.

Käänuline tee:

In short, there have been several shifts in turnover research away from what causes people to leave.


The conceptual problem of using turnover intention as a proxy for turnover behaviour, and the methodological difficulty of researching actual turnover, possibly explain the renewed interest in studying retention. However, retention is an entirely different construct from turnover.

Bolt, E. E. T., Winterton, J., & Cafferkey, K. (2022). A century of labour turnover research: A systematic literature reviewInternational Journal of Management Reviews.