Kirjutamine on siinses voos teenimatult vähe tähelepanu saanud, kuigi tegemist on valdkonnaga, millest sõltub paljutki. Eneseväljenduse oskus, sh kirjalik eneseväljendus, on midagi, mille kohta õppimine ei lõpe kunagi. (tõsi, see väide ei ole väga originaalne, sest puudutab kõiki eluvaldkondi) Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et kirjaliku eneseväljenduse oskuse treenimine ja sellest mõtlemine võiks olla kasulik paljudele.


Synthesis writing differs from other types of writing in terms of both cognitive and task demands because it requires writers to integrate information across source materials. Thus, it is a hybrid task that requires both reading and writing (Spivey & King, 1989); students must read and select appropriate information from sources, contrast and integrate that information while writing, and continuously revise texts as a result.


Importantly, product approaches have almost exclusively relied on hand annotations of source integration, which are costly in terms of the amount of time and money invested (Williamson et al., 2012).

Autorite ambitsioon:

The purpose of this study is to examine methods to automatically annotate argumentative synthesis essays for aspects of source integration.

Midagi mõõdikutaolist:

Indeed, success on synthesis tasks demonstrates that an individual is able to comprehend source texts, and in turn, develop written, argumentative responses that coherently incorporate source material (Solé et al., 2013; Spivey & King, 1989).

Erinevad meetodid:

There are two general approaches to assessing successful synthesis in writing: process and product approaches. Process approaches often use audio-visual recordings (Martínez et al., 2015; Mateos & Solé, 2009; Solé et al., 2013) or keystroke logging (Leijten et al., 2019; Vandermeulen et al., 2019) to examine time spent reading sources and writing as well as transitions between the source texts and essay. […] A product approach, which is amenable to NLP techniques, focuses on identifying the amount of information integrated into an essay from a source text, how the information is integrated (e.g., quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing), and the accuracy of the integration (Gebril & Plakans, 2009, 2009; Petrić, 2012; Plakans, 2009; Plakans & Gebril, 2013; Uludag et al., 2019; Weigle & Parker, 2012).

Midagi, millest võiks hoiduda:

However, hand-coding data for language is a difficult, time-consuming, subjective, and resource intensive process (Dodigovic, 2005; Higgins et al., 2011) and is not a viable option for large corpora of texts.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

In addition, more skilled writers are more likely to avoid copying long strings of words from the source text (i.e., plagiarism).

Crossley, S., Wan, Q., Allen, L., & McNamara, D. (2021). Source inclusion in synthesis writing: an NLP approach to understanding argumentation, sourcing, and essay quality. Reading and Writing, 1-31.