Siinviidatu ei mahu näiliselt ühegi siinse kodulehe fookusvaldkonna piiresse, kuid ometi on kõiki neid läbiv. Enamgi, mulle tundub, et mõistes nii võimsate nähtuste kui religioon tähenduse teisenemist ühiskonnas, on võimalik ühiskondlikke protsesse tervikuna lihtsamalt haarata.
Yet, precisely the period when the decline of organized religion hit its stride – the 1960s and 1970s – also witnessed the rise of a ‘new religious consciousness’, characterized by what Robert Bellah referred to as ‘an intense preoccupation with authentic personal experience’ (Bellah, 1970, p. 224).
Moreover, because mysticism places ‘intense emphasis upon “first-hand experience”’, it ‘can be combined with every kind of objective religion, and with customary forms of worship, myth, and doctrine’. Yet, because it tends to ‘see itself as the real universal heart of all religion, of which the various myth-forms are merely the outer garment’, mysticism, argues Troeltsch, has historically tended to be hostile to the established church (1912/1992, p. 734).
And in most cases, as Wade Clark Roof (1999, p. 6) observes, among those who call themselves ‘spiritual but not religious’ there exists an abiding commitment to religious individualism, which prizes individual freedom, personal authenticity and transcendent experience – what we might call a ‘religion of the heart’ (Watts, 2022). In short, despite evident secularization, we also seem to be in the midst of a veritable spiritual turn.
Autorid seavad eesmärke:
In this article we pursue this puzzle in a somewhat peculiar fashion: we turn our gaze toward the lives and oeuvres of the two sociologists who have arguably played the largest roles in the development of classical secularization theory: Max Weber and Peter Berger.
Suured on vähestes küsimustes ühel meelel, kuid milleski siiski:
While founding fathers of sociology like Comte, Marx, Durkheim and Weber may have disagreed about the precise nature of modernity, not to mention its merits, their intellectual debts to the Enlightenment ensured a shared set of assumptions. For these men, modernity marks a rupture in time, an epochal shift, which crucially entails the steady demise of religion and concomitant rise of science.
More than any other classical sociologist, secularization theory remains comprehensively indebted to Max Weber. In his celebrated lecture ‘Science as a Vocation’, given in 1917 in Munich to faculty and students in the sciences, Weber proclaimed, ‘That science today is irreligious no one will doubt in his [sic] innermost being, even if he will not admit it to himself’ (Weber, 1946, p. 143).
Klassikaline arusaam sekularisatsioonist:
It holds that intellectualization undermines the plausibility of religious worldviews (Weltanschauungen), bringing about a wholly mechanistic world that is ostensibly deaf to human suffering, empty of value, and basically meaningless.
Berger is probably best known among sociologists for his now-classic collaboration with Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality. Among sociologists of religion, however, Berger is generally best known for his book The Sacred Canopy, in which he adapts Weber’s disenchantment thesis in order to codify what has since become the classical account of secularization.
Indeed, this was Troeltsch’s key insight: the anti-institutionalism at the core of ‘mystic religion’ is what spawns its defining features. […] As historian of religion Wouter Hanegraaff, keen observer of esotericism and New Age ‘spirituality’, explains with remarkable sociological insight: ‘individualism functions as an in-built defense mechanism against social organization and institutionalization: as soon as any group of people involved with New Age ideas begins to take up “cultic” characteristics, this very fact already distances them from the basic individualism of New Age spirituality’ (Hanegraaff, 2002, p. 259).
Watts, G., & Houtman, D. (2022). The spiritual turn and the disenchantment of the world: Max Weber, Peter Berger and the religion–science conflict. The Sociological Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/00380261221096387