Siinviidatu ei kuulu eksplitsiitselt ühegi siinse kodulehe fookusvaldkonda olles siiski kõigi implitsiitne osa. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele ja selle ideede avalikustamine oleks kasulik igas ühiskonnas.


The decision of the editorial team of Charlie Hebdo magazine to republish in September 2020, the cartoons of Muhammad whose initial publication in 2015 had caused much controversy and had triggered a violent attack on its office leading to death of 12 of its employees, made France once again a focal point of this contentious debate.

Autor seab fookust:

This article attempts to unpack why European Muslims feel anxious about European leaders’ staunch defence of the right to produce and publish Muhammad’s cartoons, knowing full well how much hurt they cause to their Muslim citizens. […] The article frames this analysis within debates in liberal theory on the potential to cause harm as being one reason for restricting freedom of speech.

(Vildakad) eeldused:

The European governments’ defence of Muhammad’s cartoons is based on the premise that the right to free speech entails that religion is not above ridicule.

Muhammad ei ole jumala poeg, vaid inimene:

In making this comparison, there is an assumption that religious figures or symbols have the same status across different religious traditions. In order to understand why for Muslim’s any expression of disrespect to Muhammad is particularly sensitive, it is important to understand that Muhammad is central to Islam in a way prophets in other religious traditions are not. Unlike Jesus, he is not a son of God but a human and thus he is fallible, but he is so perfect in his devotion to God, and in following his commands, that in the eyes of God, he is the perfect human, who all humankind should follow.

Islam ja vägivald:

Overall, Islam places emphasis on winning the battle by causing minimum harm to the enemy. The Quran itself instructs Muslims to exercise restrain when fighting in the way of Allah in verses such as: ‘surely Allah (God) does not love those who exceed the limits’, (2:190).

Konflikti juured:

Further, by endorsing Macron’s defence of the publication of these cartoons, when he was critiqued by Muslim leaders, European leaders showed to their European Muslims citizens that this unwillingness to hear the Muslim perspective on this subject is shared across European states.

John Stuart Mill:

John Stuart Mill, who built the most formidable intellectual defence of free speech, also did acknowledge the need to restrain free speech if it causes harm.

… ja lumepall veereb:

Given that European Muslims are already under pressure due to growing Islamophobia and anti-immigrant sentiments in Europe, is it fair for the European states not to check actions of the majority, which are creating increased hostility and intolerance of an already vulnerable minority population.

Bano, M. (2022). Caricaturing the prophet: Pushing the right to free speech too far? Philosophy & Social Criticism.