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despite large criminological sub-fields devoted to the study of gangs, co-offending and desistance, there is a notable lack of theoretical analysis devoted to the dynamics of social relations that sustain these behaviours (see Goldsmith and Halsey, 2013; Weaver, 2015). Instead, academic and policy framings focus overwhelmingly on young people as individual rather than collective actors

Artikli ambitsioon:

we offer a theoretical vocabulary that reaches between and beyond existing approaches by centring the concept of social relations. Rather than approaching group offending through the lens of gangs, co-offending or desistance, we privilege the social relations that underpin and sometimes undercut these categories, examining the dynamics of group relationships, what shapes them and the way they, in turn, shape and affect offending and desistance trajectories.

Fookuse täpsustus:

We aim to move beyond rational actor models that emphasize transactional or instrumentalized bases for social relationships—which Newburn (2014: 3) observed resulted in ‘somewhat dry, evacuated accounts of those worlds’—towards a holistic account that engages with the invisible cords that bind social action.

Relatsioonilise mõtteviisi tulek:

Donati’s (2011) concept of social relations is concerned with relazione (reciprocal or mutual interaction), rather than rapporto (the statistical relations empirically established between independent variables, characteristic of much social network analysis). From this perspective, social relations are not straightforwardly reducible to influences of one person on another. Instead, understanding how social relations work requires an examination of their effects, specifically ‘the behaviour that none of the actors [individually] “brings” to the relation but which results from their interaction’

Vihjed kokkuvõttest:

We propose that taking the social relation, the group, rather than the individual or network, as the primary unit of analysis can reveal a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of collectives or social groups in general, and those involved in group offending in particular. The model proposed, therefore, facilitates an analysis of the social dynamics of group offending, and the socio-cultural influences that shape them, which our study reveals are, in this context, enduring across generations.

Weaver, B., & Fraser, A. (2021). The social dynamics of group offending. Theoretical Criminology.