Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha peamiselt järgmistel põhjustel:

  • tekstis tegeletakse demokraatia ja populismi vahekorraga;
  • argumentatsioonis kasutatakse John Dewey tekste;
  • artiklis leidub hulgaliselt nii argumenteeritud kriitilisele mõtlemisele kasulikke vihjeid kui ka päevapoliitiliselt tõlgendatavaid teravaid vaatenurki.


“Based on the observation that humans tend to act irrationally in critical moments, John Dewey argues at the close of WWI that not ‘the irrational itself’ is a ‘sinister thing’, but the ‘systematic’ cultivation of it. And he warns that collective seizures of irrationality are often abused by powerful groups to reach goals contradicting the common good (Dewey 1918: 108–9).” (Petersen, 2022, p. 2)

Populistide eesmärgid:

“All populists seek political power. Once in power, they aim to entrench their regime and preserve the power constellation thus created. Albeit minor differences, the strategies of various populist projects vary only in nuances. Populists seek out social fears and exploit them.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 2) […] “To realize political projects, contemporary populism cultivates irrationality by affirming subjective feelings of helplessness in the face of social pressures, reinforcing perceived (but not necessarily substantiated) problems and conflicts or promoting conspiracy theories.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 2)

Chantal Mouffe populismist:

“In this regard, she observes that the erosion of equality and political sovereignty has led to a profound alienation between citizens and elites in liberal democracies. Therefore, (Mouffe 2018, 12) defines the ‘populist moment’ as ‘the expression of a variety of resistances to the political and economic transformations seen during the years of neoliberal hegemony’.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 3)

Populistide püüdlused:

“In other words, populism strives because of its responsiveness to problems that the majority does not consider relevant or in need of a solution. At the same time, populists routinely fail to implement problem solutions (think of Trump’s failure to ‘build the wall’ that Mexico was meant to pay for), which illustrates that the output legitimacy of their political projects is frail.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 4)

Demokraatiapraktikad ja teadustöö järgivad samu kaanoneid:

“According to John Dewey, democratic action and scientific research follow similar methods. In scientific inquiry, problems are narrowed down, different hypothetical solutions are applied to a problem in the process and the research community tries to solve problems in association with others. Democratic politics is a similar process of publicly determining and negotiating socially relevant problems and politically acceptable solutions.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 4)

Kes või mis on avalikkus?

“Any public that aims to define decisions of the general public, therefore, will have to gain influence over ‘inherited political agencies’ or create new political agencies to achieve their goal. Accordingly, the large-P Public can be described as ‘inchoate’ and ‘unorganized’ because numerous publics – some more and others less influential – engage in actions aimed at determining their problems as public problems, while dealing with the obstructive measures of established associations. Thus, the public is not the political association of society, but an amorphous meshwork of various publics involved in diverse activities.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 11)

Demokraatia haarab populismi:

“Accordingly, all problems perceived as real by different groups must be recognized and solved, which means that supporters of populist views are in principle also entitled to participate in this democratic praxis.” (Petersen, 2022, p. 13)

Petersen, F. (2022). Pragmatist democracy and the populist challenge. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 1–18.