“Over the last ten years, the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have become renewed objects of study—and of concern—given the noticeable backward trends in their levels of democracy.1 Since joining the European Union in 2004, nearly every new CEE member-state has seen a decline in its democracy as measured by different indices of political development.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 313)

Autor lubab:

“Rather, the chapter will provide a more structured comparison of one of the best- and one of the least-performing CEE countries, Estonia and Poland, respectively.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 314)

Kontekstuaalne vihje metodoloogiale:

“Ever since the introduction by Easton (1957) of structural functionalism, comparative politics has focused on both the performance of institutions and the feedback attitudes (demands) of the citizenry. Moreover, in democratic politics, the two are linked both normatively and practically.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 315)


“At first glance, the choice to compare Estonia and Poland stems from an almost classical ‘most-similar-systems’ design. Against the backdrop of the two nations’ seemingly analogous history of communism/postcommunism as well as their more recent, almost parallel processes of European Union accession and integration, Poland and Estonia have begun to differ noticeably in terms of the robustness of their democracy.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 317)

Eesti eelistused:

“To put it in even simpler terms, Estonian society emerged with a much stronger centre-right, pro-Western orientation, since anything seen as questioning” (Pettai, 2022, p. 319) […] “this direction was implicitly viewed as potentially undermining independence itself.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 320)

Võrdlevanalüüsis ajalist faktorit rõhutav aspekt:

“Indeed, the problématique itself of comparing Poland and Estonia derives from the visible change (i.e. decline) in Poland’s democracy rating over the last five years. In this respect, time-series data charting popular opinion about different aspects of democracy are necessary for completing this comparison.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 322)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“In other words, the ability of populist forces not only to feed off of existing discontent, but also to manoeuvre themselves electorally into majority power serves as the intervening link between popular and institutional declines in democratic development.” (Pettai, 2022, p. 338)

Pettai, V. (2022). Post-Communist Democracies in Decline? Estonia and Poland Compared. In U. van Beek (Ed.), Democracy under Pressure: Resilience or Retreat? (pp. 313–340). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-09123-0_11