Paljudes riikides on politseivaldkonna esindajate arvates hea idee püüda politseitööd kuidagi mõtestatult korraldada ning selleks töötatakse välja või rakendatakse erinevaid politseistrateegiaid (erialakirjanduses on kasutusel nii strategy, style, method, model jne). Probleemipõhise politsei mudel (POP) on üks levinumaid ning ka enim uuritud. Ometi on ka siin veel avastamisruumi palju. Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst tegeleb POP kuritegevuse vähendamise võimekuse hindamise küsimustega. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda siiski avaramalt, kui ainult politseifriikidele, sest pakub mõtlemiskohti organisatsioonide tegevuskeskkonna sidustamiseks.

Kontekstiks:

Successful policy implementation plays a crucial role in government strategies to tackle crime (Bullock et al., 2002; Hough, 2004), and through the adoption of specific practices, police forces can act as a central catalyst for reducing crime at the local level (e.g. hot-spot policing—Braga et al., 2019).

Hoolimata suurest tähelepanust, on avastamisruumi palju:

With notable exceptions, there is also a lack of research examining whether there is a long-term relationship between falls in crime rates and policing strategies at the national level in USA (Roeder et al., 2015), in Australia (Brown, 2015) and, to our knowledge, in the UK (except for an important body of work by Hale et al. (2004, 2005) and Heaton (2009a, b)).

Autorid seavad eesmärgi:

The aim of this article, therefore, is to lay the foundation for future studies seeking to investigate the role of policing styles in general, and problem-oriented policing (POP) in particular, in explaining developments such as the crime drop.

Mõnes riigis on politseitöö mõtestamisega tõsi taga:

Hale et al. (2004) claimed police forces applied particular policing styles to different extents before 2001, namely intelligence-led policing (ILP), POP, partnership policing (PP), and geographic policing (GP). Based on Hale et al. (2004, 2005), Heaton (2009a, p. 166) provided a table presenting 42 police forces’ policing styles prior to 2001.

Probleemipõhisest politseist selgitus neile, kellele politseivaldkond tuttav ei ole:

POP is one of several innovative policing strategies designed to transform police culture and performance. It aims to enhance police forces’ crime prevention capacity by changing their organizational mindset from reactive to proactive (Goldstein, 1979, 1990). In practice, it seeks to manipulate the underlying conditions of recurring problems rather than targeting incidents on a case-by-case basis.

On märgata positiivseid trende, kuid kas tegemist on nö säraküünlapeoga?

Both narrative (Skogan and Frydl, 2004; Weisburd and Eck, 2004) and systematic reviews (Mazerolle et al., 2007; Braga and Weisburd, 2012; Mazerolle et al., 2013; Gill et al., 2014; Braga et al., 2015; Telep and Weisburd, 2016; Hinkle et al., 2020) have concluded that POP reduces crime. However, the reviewed studies usually assess the effectiveness of small-scale, problem-oriented projects, which is just one approach to determining the adoption and success of POP (see Scott, 2000, pp. 131134).

Strateegiate rakendamine on sageli nö valikuline, st rakendatakse teatud aspekte ning sageli üsna ebajärjekindlalt (minu järeldus ületab allneva tsitaadi piirid ja põhineb erialasel lugemusel):

Sidebottom et al. (2020, p. 9) reported that ‘even in police forces with a longstanding commitment to problem-solving, interview participants felt that the approach is far from mainstreamed.’ Our findings support this assertion, having identified differing levels of commitment to POP by police forces.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Publicly available data would make a future assessment of the commitment to POP (and the subsequent impact on crime) much easier and remove the need to use retrospective, proxy measures.

Ferhat Tura, James Hunter, Rebecca Thompson, Andromachi Tseloni. (2022) Identifying the adoption of policing styles: A methodology for determining the commitment to problem-oriented policing amongst police forces in England and Wales, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practicehttps://doi.org/10.1093/police/paac021