Kaasaegse politsei (st alates u 16. saj) esiletõusu võib lihtsustatult kujutada, kui positiivsete jõudude sissetoomist keerustuvasse ja tasakaalust väljas ühiskonnakorraldusse ning seetõttu võiks mõelda, et politsei on kantud positiivsest eetosest. Ometi pakuvad nüüd ka arenenud demokraatiad juba vähemalt kahe kümnendi jooksul politseipraktikaid, mis on tõstatanud küsimuse politsei positiivse eetose aksiomaatilisusest. Enamgi, paljud autorid on politseipraktikaid analüüsides jõudnud järeldusele, et politsei käitumine võib osutuda probleemide esilekutsujaks, mitte nende lahendajaks. Ja siinviidatud artiklis (NB! Vaata, mis valdkonna ajakiri!) tegelevad autorid küsimusega politseikäitumise mõjudest elanike tervisele ning selline küsimuseasetus seab tõsise väljakutse politsei professionaalsusele tõstes selle fookuse indiviidi tasandilt ühiskonna tasandile.

Kontekstiks:

High-profile killings of unarmed people of color by police have fueled national dialogue on the ways policing affects population health, particularly in marginalized communities. […] The idea that policing influences population health is buttressed by extensive research demonstrating how social determinants of health, including exposure to structural racism through the United States justice system, can have profound and enduring effects on population and individual health (Bailey et al., 2017; Mesic et al., 2018; Sewell and Jefferson, 2016). Law enforcement directly interfaces with larger numbers of people than any other arm of the justice system, therefore policing may be a conspicuous yet not-well understood driver of population health

Kontseptuaalse mudeli suunas:

Prior research has explored a range of potential predictive factors associated with policing outcomes, dividing them primarily across four levels: individual, situational, contextual, and organizational.

Politseikultuurist:

police culture can direct not only agency policy and decision making but also individual officer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors […] Normalization of a militaristic mentality, a shift from guardian to warrior mindset, a strong us-versus-them mentality, and the codification of these in aggressive agency policies, gear, and tactics draw an even starker line between officer and community

Kuidas politsei ennast elanikele “ilmutab”:

On any given day, a single police department is likely to have a broad range of interactions with the community it serves such as traffic stops, arrests, community events, televised speeches, social media posts, or interviews with the press. Agencies influence the tone of their relationships with the community by how they instruct officers to dress, the number and types of vehicles assigned to patrol certain neighborhoods, the way they enforce (or do not enforce) certain policies, and by the communication style they train officers to use when speaking with community members. Each of these represents a different type of “exposure” to police that an individual or an entire community may experience.

Kellele see artikkel võiks huvi pakkuda:

Developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers, this model may be informative to public health, sociology, criminal justice, and other academic fields seeking to advance our collective understanding of the role of police in modern society and the ramifications of troublesome police practices.

… ja täpsustav sihistus politseile:

This framework may provide law enforcement agencies with an opportunity for introspection and evaluation on the way communities are policed.

Simckes, M., Willits, D., McFarland, M., McFarland, C., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., & Hajat, A. (2021). The adverse effects of policing on population health: A conceptual model. Social Science & Medicine.