Allan Y Jiao on üks autoritest, kelle publikatsioone võiks iga politseihuviline vähemalt sirvida. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha muuhulgas põhjusel, et fokuseerib politseistrateegiatele, mis on nii politsei kui organisatsiooni aspektist oluline.
“To maintain public safety and reduce gun violence, it is important to understand the effectiveness of various strategies used to address gun crimes that occur on a daily basis. This review thus excludes studies focused on mass shootings.” (Jiao, 2022, p. 1)
Varasemad uuringud soovitavad peamiselt kahte strateegiat: probleemipõhise politsei ja kogukonnakeskse politsei strateegiat.
“The previous reviews suggest predominantly two types of police strategies for addressing gun crimes, that is, problem-oriented policing (Braga and Weisburd, 2015; Koper and Mayo-Wilson, 2006; National Research Council, 2005; Sherman, 2001) and community policing (Fagan, 2002; International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2011; Makarios and Pratt, 2012; Redding and Shalf, 2001).” (Jiao, 2022, p. 2)
“The current review, by including a variety of studies, addresses the question, are two types of strategies and related theories sufficient for understanding policing gun crimes?” (Jiao, 2022, p. 3)
“A key-word search was performed in ten electronic databases, that is, Criminal Justice Abstract, Criminal Justice Database, Social Science Database, Sociological Abstracts, Sociology Database, Medline, Legal Information Reference Center, Policy File Index, Public Health Database, and Google Scholar with different combinations of the following search terms: “police,”“law enforcement,”“gun,” “firearm,”“gun crime,”“gun violence,” and “risk.”” (Jiao, 2022, p. 3)
“Since this review is focused on research articles on police strategies dealing with daily gun crimes, articles on police use of guns, police-involved gun incidents, gun assaults on police, police gun training, lack of cooperation during gun incidents, police-race dynamics involving guns, police and gun laws, broad gun control legislations, mass shootings, and terrorism topics were excluded.” (Jiao, 2022, p. 3)
“Police strategies were classified into eight categories such as focused deterrence, directed uniformed patrols, comprehensive approach, situational/routine activities, and professional law enforcement. These strategies were then identified or described as effective, ineffective, or not evaluated according to results presented in the original studies.” (Jiao, 2022, p. 3)
“Different from previous reviews focused predominantly on targeted patrols and focused deterrence and occasionally on community/comprehensive approach, this review based on forty-three studies has led to two other orientations in policing gun crimes, most notably the situational/routine activity perspectives and, to a lesser extent, the tech-driven law enforcement model.” (Jiao, 2022, p. 12-13)
Jiao, A. Y. (2022). Policing gun crimes: A comprehensive review of strategies and effectiveness. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X221113454