Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjusel:

  1. tegemist on valdkonnaga, mida on keeruline uurida ja mis on ühest küljest alati väga riigi ja (politsei)kultuuri spetsiifiline ja teisalt midagi universaalset;
  2. politsei on paljudes riikides mitmete arvates peamiselt n-ö käsitöölisorganisatsioon (hoolimata eriharidust korraldavatest õppeasutustest) ning piiratud ligipääs teadusandmebaasidele piiratud nii paroolide kui väheste oskustega (viimane ei ole etteheide, vaid tõdemus).


The ambition to proactively obtain information about crime, and the activities of suspects, remains a key objective of late modern policing, driving the use of undercover policing methodologies – including covert human informants (Maguire and John, 1995; Rowe and Sogaard, 2020).

Informaatoritest, avang:

Whilst official police discourse justifies the use of informants as making an important – if not essential – contribution to the prevention and detection of crime, the employment of persons by the state to infiltrate the lives and organizations of those perceived as threatening to security is nevertheless morally ‘dirty’ (Klockars, 1985).

Autorid määratlevad (ülevaate)artikli žanri ja piirid:

In this review article, we present a research agenda that takes seriously the moral significance, emotional disruption and power dynamics at play within this pervasive, yet secretive, arena of policing.

Kes on informaator?

By and large, police informants are people who ‘trade information on the criminal world in exchange for money, discounted sentences and immunity from prosecution’ (Billingsley, 2003: 7).

Vihjed kesksetest debattidest spetsiifilisema huvi korral:

The key debates reviewed above provide a crucial insight into: informant types and motivations; how new legal frameworks both regulate and expand the deployment of police informants; and the consequences of informant vulnerability to power differentials in the police-informant relationship and its implications for informant autonomy and processes of criminalization.

Lähemale moraali ja eetika küsimustele:

Within the field of philosophy and criminal justice ethics, a discrete body of literature gets closer to our concern with morals and emotions by examining the ethical quandaries and dilemmas arising from the police deployment of covert and undercover techniques, including police informants (Fyfe, 2017; Harfield, 2012; Nathan, 2017; Williamson and Bagshaw, 2000).

Politseinike dilemmad:

Since police officers employ evaluations, emotions and judgements during their interactions with informants, it seems to us that the ‘moral moments’ inherent in the affective dimensions of police bureaucracies for managing informants requires a much closer and careful examination.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

As an aspect of police institutions, and one with its own social world, informants policing exudes key themes of power, inequality, and conflict. The informant role appears to be populated by those whose lives are infused with vulnerability and disadvantage, provoking consequences of unequal power relations with the police and implications for dignity, autonomy and processes of criminalization. […] For police handlers, critically self-examining any inclinations and potential biases they may have in carrying out their role could serve to calibrate and modify their moral perceptions, dispositions and, ultimately, behavioural responses. For informants, by revealing instances where they have felt pressured or coerced into becoming an informant, or have engaged in morally dubious behaviours, they may experience a sense of vindication, recognition and acknowledgement.

Loftus, B., Bacon, M., & Skinns, L. (2022). The moral and emotional world of police informants. The Police Journal.