Siinviidatu leidis koha peamiselt ratsionaalse ja pragmaatilise eetose tõttu. Politsei võimalikku definantseerimist USAs on kajastatud sageli emotsionaalses-hinnangulises perspektiivis, kuid vähem on näha analüütilist argumentatsiooni. Nüüd on võimalik lugeda analüüsi ja mõelda esitatud argumentide üle.


The killing of George Floyd by a Minneapolis Police Department officer on May 25, 2020, led to a historic protest and reform movement across the United States that has continued into 2021. […] The protest movement has led to contentious discussions and debates in many cities about policing, with one provocative call for reform to “defund the police.” Calls for defunding have generally focused on shifting resources away from law enforcement to other public services that may improve the qual- ity of life within marginalized communities

Autorite ambitsioon:

we present findings from a large project focused on analyzing 911 calls for service across multiple agencies. We obtained, standardized, cleaned, categorized, and ana- lyzed millions of computer-aided dispatch (CAD) records across nine agencies from diverse regions of the U.S. We report on the calls for service that these police agencies handle, including how frequently different calls arise, how much time agencies spend on them, and the outcomes of those calls.


At the heart of defunding discussions is the public’s safety needs and who should be responsible for them. The only system in the U.S. that regularly collects information on these requests are public safety communications operations, colloquially known as 911 call centers. People frequently call the police for all sorts of help using these systems, which often combine emergency and non- emergency calls for service. […] In a recent systematic observation of 911 calltakers, Lum, Koper, Stoltz et al. (2020) discovered that about half of all calls that come into public safety communications centers are resolved by calltakers without any further criminal justice agency involvement. Many of these calls do not involve crimes in progress and are events such as false alarms, traffic accidents, or people seeking information.

Mõned vihjed järeldustest:

Our descriptive analysis of calls for service in nine agencies across the U.S. provides a provocative context for this debate. We suspect such analyses in other agencies would likely yield similar findings. People call the police for a wide variety of concerns and do so frequently. Traffic-related problems, everyday disputes, worries of suspicious behaviors, disorders, disturbances, and general requests for help and assurance appear to make up the bulk of events to which police officers are dispatched. These findings reveal not only people’s expectations of what they think the police should handle, but also the absence of other public or private agencies that people can call for these daily concerns.

Lum, C., Koper, C. S., & Wu, X. (2021). Can We Really Defund the Police? A Nine-Agency Study of Police Response to Calls for Service. Police Quarterly.