Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks anda vihjeid vähemalt sellest, (1) miks on kasulik doktorantide olemasolu (politsei)organisatsioonis; (2) millele tasuks mõelda parimate praktikate ülekandmisel; (3) kuidas (teoreetiline) lähtepunkt annab tähenduse (hälbivale) käitumisele ning (4) miks politseiorganisatsioonidel oleks kasulik palgal hoida prakadeemikuid.
In 2008, the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit (VRU) 1 initiated a new programme, the Glasgow Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (hereinafter ‘Glasgow CIRV’), with the aim of finding a long-term solution to the problem of gang violence in the city. The development of ‘Glasgow CIRV’ drew heavily on the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (hereinafter referred to as ‘CIRV’ to differentiate between the two initiatives), which had been established in 2007 to address Cincinnati’s gang/group violence problem.
to understand the policy transfer process and mechanisms that underpinned it, as well as the outcomes, by applying and evaluating policy transfer models.
Vihjed parimate praktikate ülevõtmistest erinevates valdkondades:
Policy transfer research has, until relatively recently, been more significant in the areas of political science, especially studies in comparative politics and international relations between differing states (Dolowitz and Marsh, 2000; Stone, 1999). It now encompasses a variety of policy spheres, including welfare policy (Peck and Theodore, 2010), education (Bache and Taylor, 2003), police reform (Robertson, 2005) and transport (Marsden and Stead, 2011).
The orthodox view is best illustrated by the work of Dolowitz and Marsh (1996, 2000) who argue that policy makers have a range of options to incorporate lessons into a system or organisation, which they categorised into four options: copying, emulation, hybridisation and synthesis and inspiration.
Fookus ja sõnum olgu selged:
In Cincinnati, police intelligence and probation records provided lists of gang members who were required to engage with ‘CIRV’ by attending a series of ‘Call-In’ sessions held in a courtroom, where they listened to various messages delivered by law enforcement, community members and service providers (see Engel et al., 2008, 2010). The key message was that the violence had to stop and there was support available for those who wanted to change their lives by engaging with the initiative. ‘CIRV’ was praised for contributing to a 34% reduction in homicides in the city over the following 2 years (see Engel et al., 2010, 2011).
Parimad praktikad võivadki olla parimad praktikad … kuni …
‘Glasgow CIRV’ was seen as a success, insofar as it appears to have met the aim of engaging young people and diverting them away from violent crime (Williams et al., 2014).
Clearly both orthodox and social-constructionist approaches offer useful insights into the policy transfer process, mechanisms and outcomes, but neither accommodates the key finding of this research – the ‘backflow’ of policy transfer mechanisms identified above.
In conclusion, this research suggests that policy transfer models, whether they be orthodox (e.g. Dolowitz and Marsh), or non-orthodox (e.g. McCann and Ward, 2012; Peck, 2011; Peck and Theodore, 2010), are useful in different ways when analysing cases of policy transfer from a theoretical perspective, with orthodox approaches also offering a useful practical framework for planning and conducting empirical research. […] This case study also highlighted the key role of the police in policy transfer, which was significant. The key responsibility of the police has been, and is primarily, as a law enforcement agency.
Graham, W., & Robertson, A. (2022). Exploring criminal justice policy transfer models and mobilities using a case study of violence reduction. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 22(3), 423–441. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895821991607