Panoptikum on ilmselt enamikele inimestele lihtsalt mingi võõrsõna või tundmatu nimi. J. Benthami kirjatöödest alguse saanud ja M. Foucault töödes panoptitsismiks arendatud põhimõtted pakuvad ka täna sisukaid võimalusi organisatsioonide mõtestamisel. Teksti tasuks lugeda kõikidel organisatsioonihuvilistel, kuid kindlasti neil, kes töötasu juhtimise eest vastu võtavad. Ei maksa välistada, et mitmeid lugejaid tabab äratundmisrõõm …, mis intellektuaalselt võib olla erutav, kuid praktiliselt õõvastav.

Panoptikum – kontekstiks:

“The ‘panopticon’ is a key emblematic concept in management and organization studies (MOS) that has long fuelled scholarly conversations. The panopticon (which etymologically comes from the ancient Greek opticon for ‘observe’ and pan for ‘all’) designates a prison design originally developed in the 18th century by the utilitarian thinker Jeremy Bentham (1995/2010, 1997) in which the observer (the guard) can watch all prisoners without the prisoners being aware of this surveillance.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 1)

Kontekst täpsustub:

“As the panopticon is increasingly used, but also discussed and debated, praised and contested, it seems advisable to question the nature and use of this metaphor in MOS research, in which it remains an iconic concept.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 2)

Uurimisküsimused:

“How has the panopticon metaphor been interpreted in MOS literature, and for what purposes? Is it still a relevant metaphor in MOS research? And to what extent can (or should) the panopticon inform MOS research in ways that go beyond its initial interpretation?” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 2)

Panoptikumist panoptitsismi:

“In its form, panopticism relies on supervision, control and correction, and translates a vision of the subject as a passive actor who can be disciplined and moulded. According to Foucault (2002, p. 70), panopticism designates . . . a type of power that is applied to individuals in the form of continuous individual supervision, in the form of control, punishment, and compensation, and in the form of correction, that is, the modelling and transforming of individuals in terms of certain norms.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 3)

Distsipliin loob subjekte ja kuulekaid kehasid:

“Discipline thus produces subjected, practiced and ordered ‘docile’ bodies that become units or objects of information, not subjects in a conversation (Foucault, 1977).” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 3)

Panoptikumi eesmärk on internaliseerida osalistele järelevalvemehhanismid viisil, mis muudaks käitumist institutsioonile sobivas suunas:

“The ultimate goal of the panopticon is to make inmates internalize the mechanism of surveillance (Foucault, 1977) and teach them appropriate behaviour to maximize the aim of the institution.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 4)

Kirjandusülevaate metoodika kirjeldus:

“Instead, our goal in this literature review is to more specifically analyse the uses of the ‘panopticon’ concept. To review how MOS scholars have operationalized it, first we performed a systematic literature review (Engelmann et al., 2020; Hillmann & Guenther, 2021;Okoli,2015; Tranfield et al., 2003)byusing the most well-known databases in business and management (i.e. Business Source Complete, SCOPUS and Web of Science). We queried the words ‘panopticon’, ‘panoptic’, ‘panopticism’ and ‘panoptism’ and searched across text, titles, abstracts and keywords of articles in double-blind peer-reviewed journals in the MOS field.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 4)

Panoptikumi kolm omavahel seotud dimensiooni: vorm (järelevalve ja kontroll), põhimõte (pidev nähtavalolek) ja eesmärk (kuulekate kehade tootmine).

“The three main interrelated dimensions of panopticism—that is, its form (supervision and control of self-disciplined subjects), principle (constant visibility) and goal (production of docile bodies)—are extremely powerful in making sense of control in modern organizations, thus explaining why this concept has become inspiring for MOS research.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 7)

Panoptikum ja selle filosoofiline üldistus panoptitsism on sotsiaalse kontrolli ja järelevalve kontseptualiseerimise kesksed põhimõtted.

“Our literature review shows that the panopticon and its broader philosophy—panopticism—constitute the primary perspective with which to conceptualize social control, surveillance and their evolution in modern societies.” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 10)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks – panoptikumi mõtestamine organisatsioonides pakub endiselt suuri võimalusi ning mitmed senised tõlgendused on lausa valed.

“Following a recent trend in parallel disciplines (Brunon-Ernst, 2013a, 2013b; Tusseau, 2013), we restore Bentham’s conception of the panopticon and argue that the interpretation of the latter developed in MOS research is not only caricatural but also wrong. In this vein, paradoxically, what is often viewed as anti-panoptic features of new ways of working (e.g. autonomy and empowerment, contrasting with the disciplinary logic traditionally found in the first reading of the panopticon) is actually fundamentally panoptic, according to its initial spirit developed by Bentham (second reading).” (Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, p. 17)

Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, A. (n.d.). The panopticon, an emblematic concept in management and organization studies: Heaven or hell? International Journal of Management Reviews, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12305