Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjusel. Esiteks, on tegemist tekstiga, mis tõenäoliselt satub strateegilise juhtimise seminaritekstiks magistrikursusel. Teiseks, artikli uurimisaine ja objekt on midagi sellist, mis küll paljude avalike organisatsioonide ülemuste retoorikat kaunistab, kuid mille praktikad jäävad enamasti hästi varjatuks (lühidalt: kas minuni jõudvad praktikad kinnitavad, et avalikes organisatsioonides hoolitakse töötajatest? Ei kinnita või siis võike osa, mis sageli tõukub konkreetsest indiviidist (konkreetne ülemus)).


In explaining competitive advantage and its sustainability, the resource-based view (RBV) focuses on favorable features of a firm’s resources, such as their value, rarity, and inimitability (Barney, 1991). Furthermore, in addition to features of resources themselves, RBV also recognizes that the way an organization deploys its resources—i.e., the “O” in the VRIO acronym—can influence the benefit derived from them (e.g., Barney & Hesterly, 2010: p. 68-86).

Autorid väidavad:

In light of these practical obstacles, we argue that there are other factors in organizational deployment—perhaps less dramatic, more transparent, more concrete, and easier to use than dynamic capabilities—that can also boost a resource’s effectiveness. Specifically, we propose that the organization’s workflow is one such factor.

… ja küsivad:

We address two related questions: First, how does the type of workflow interdependence used by an organization influence the relative harm to organizational performance resulting from the loss of star versus non-star employees? Second, how does an organization’s workflow type influence the relative effectiveness of different methods for mitigating the impact of these losses?

Kas keskenduda parimate töötajate saamisele või hoidmisele?

Whereas much research has focused on the benefits of gaining superior human capital (e.g., Campbell et al., 2014; Groysberg et al., 2008), this study takes the opposite approach: We study the effects of losing, rather than gaining, strategically important human capital, and the question of which capabilities can most effectively help organizations to recover from such losses.

Huvitav empiiria:

In this paper, we study how the performance of National Basketball Association (NBA) teams is affected by the voluntary departure of players. […] Our results indicate that the loss of a star player is more damaging under conditions of pooled interdependence, while the loss of a non-star is more damaging under conditions of reciprocal interdependence.

“Keegi ei ole kellegi oma” …

However, in contrast to other resources like physical assets or intellectual property, human capital cannot be owned by an organization, which can create dilemmas for managers seeking to build competitive advantage from human capital (Coff, 1997) and limit an organization’s ability to appropriate the value generated by human capital (Castanias & Helfat, 1991; Coff, 1999).

Kasulik täiendus analüüsiraamistikule:

Of the four elements in the VRIO framework, the least researched with regard to human-capital resources is the “O”, which concerns the effectiveness with which such resources are organized and deployed. In contrast to the other VRIO criteria, this element can be more dependent on the organization than on the resource itself.

“Huvitav, miks ta ära läks?”

Whereas an organization usually knows in advance when it is about to gain a resource, the loss of a resource is more likely to come as an unexpected surprise. Such unexpected losses are especially likely in the case of human capital resources, since employees are endowed with both free will and the legal right to leave organizations at any time for any reason.

Kaks töövoogu:

In short, superior performance may arise from different sources under different workflow types: from superior employees under pooled interdependence, but also from superior interactions among employees under reciprocal interdependence.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks vihje järeldustest:

Organizations should match their human-resource capabilities to their workflow type, and vice versa. Therefore, in terms of capability development, an organization whose workflow must necessarily rely on pooled interdependence (e.g., skilled craftspeople working independently) should invest more in capabilities for external acquisition and less in capabilities for internal development, while organizations whose workflows necessarily rely on reciprocal interdependence (e.g., team production) should do the reverse.

… ja veelkord töövoo olulisusest:

However, this study highlights a distinctive feature of human capital: the property of being situated at a particular position within an organizational structure. Indeed, it is this distinctive feature that makes the type of workflow interdependencies characterizing an organization such an important contingency factor in our study.

Kim, Jongsoo, and Richard Makadok. “Unpacking the “O” in VRIO: The role of workflow interdependence in the loss and replacement of strategic human capital.” Strategic Management Journal (2021).