Nihilism on kohal. Ma ei ole ajaloolane ja sestap ei oska nihilismi ulatust või tähendusruumi võrrelda XX sajandi märgilistel hetkedel, kuid tundub – ja see tähendab, et eksimisvõimalus on suur! -, et nihilismi erinevad tähendusvormid on praeguses ühiskonnas (Eestis ja internetis) hästi esindatud. Aga nihilismi tähenduse üle tasuks mõelda ja siin on mängus F. Nietzsche mõttekäigud. Siinviidatu on vabalevis olev tekst ja pikki kommentaare ei vaja. Ongi hea igaühel ise lugeda ja mõelda. Või siis mitte.
Although the term is prevalent in philosophical and other discourses of the 20th century, there seems to be little agreement as to its precise meaning. Even today, the word is ambiguous, for ‘nihilism’ is used to denote both a lack of ideology and ideology as such (or even a lack of ideology as ideology).
Among the countless apprehensions or fixations that haunted the 20th century, the question of nihilism was undoubtedly a fundamental one. Far from being a mere philosophical concern, the succession of sociopolitical conflicts that shook Europe during this period made its presence (or as Nietzsche would call it, the ‘specter of nihilism’) permeate the totality of the West (at the very core of which it had, arguably, always been present – see Heidegger 1979, 26), manifesting itself through all social discourses and strata: art, popular culture, politics, psychology, sociology and so on.
This article overviews the emergence and development of the term nihilism in order to discuss the motives for its growing prevalence, to clarify its apparent ambiguity and to consider the reasons behind the surprising lack of consensus regarding its specific meaning.
The exact origin of the word ‘nihilism’ is unclear. […] Friedrich Jacobi (presumably the best known user of the term in the 18th century) is often erroneously referred to as the father of the word. 1 Many also mistakenly credit Ivan Turgenev’s novel Fathers and Sons (1862) as the first place where it appeared, while others, such as Lawrence J Hatab (following Robert G Olson’s lead), identify it as a 19th-century Russian expression. […] agree on this matter, affirming that the first significant philosophical use of the term is to be found in Jacobi’s famous letter addressed to Fichte, where he deems the latter’s idealism to be ‘nihilism’ (Nihilismus) (see 2008, 15). So it is that the word enters the domain of philosophy as a critical characterization of German idealism, with Jacobi’s ‘Circular Letter’, written in 1799.
Õige ja vale arusaam.
Indeed, as Heidegger was pointing out by 1958, Nietzsche had become a major figure in the 20th century: the thinker ‘in whose light and shadow all of us today, with our “for him” or “against him” are thinking and writing’ (1958, 107). […] Even Michael Allen Gillespie, who believes that Nietzsche ‘misunderstood nihilism’ (1995, vii), acknowledges that he was the central figure to define the term and that his work is largely responsible for the concept’s ubiquity in the 20th century.
Nietzsche ja nihilism.
the famous sentence found in a notebook dated autumn 1885–autumn 1886: ‘Nihilism stands at the door: whence comes to us this uncanniest of all guests?’ (Nietzsche 1968, 7). […] ‘“Either abolish your venerations or – yourselves!” The latter would be nihilism; but would not the former also be – nihilism?’ (Nietzsche 1974, 204).
Kuidas nihilismiga hakkama saada:
Nietzsche identifies two possible responses to nihilism: active and passive (see 1968, 17). He deems active nihilism to be the only true answer, since passive nihilism remains in essence a moral valuation and therefore inherently nihilistic, given that ‘morality is a way of turning one’s back on the will to existence’ (Nietzsche 1968, 7).
Juured on sügaval:
One can therefore summarize Nietzsche’s thought on nihilism as a twofold process: nihilism as the negation of life through its subordination to a ‘higher realm’ and nihilism as the consequence of the ‘death of God’; in other words, as the realization of the fictitiousness of this higher realm.
Such studies demonstrate that nihilism is not only culture-specific but also generic, in that it relies on specific ideologies to unfold. The meaning of the term shifts in these analyses according, not to the particular historical moment in which it is used or the specific thinker who attempts to examine it but to the concrete aspect of life which it opposes or negates.
Toribio Vazquez, J. L. (2021). Nietzsche’s shadow: On the origin and development of the term nihilism. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 47(10), 1199–1212. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453720975454