Siinviidatu on üks ajakirja European Journal of Social Theory J. Habermarsi tekstidele keskendunud erinumbrist. Valikut ei olnud sel korral keeruline teha, sest siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda nii valitsejatele kui valitsetavatele, sest tegeleb neoliberalismi küsimusega rahvusriigi, demokraatia ja ühtse euroopa rahva kujunemise perspektiivist. Tekstis tehakse igapäevaelu ja tuleviku mõtestamise seisukohast oluline eristus majanduse ja ideoloogia seisukohtadest. Demokraatia ei ole rahvusriikide taastugevnemisel sugugi enam iseenesestmõistetav.


Habermas argues that the current democratic deficit mostly stems from the absence of a transnational European demos or people, that is, the citizens of a given political body, understood as the ultimate intentional lawmaker or sovereign (Habermas, 1996, 2008, 2012, 2015). […] State representatives in the organs of the European Union (EU) (e.g. deputies in the European Parliament, as the voice of the various national peoples, and heads of state in the European Council, the voice of the Member States) aim to safeguard the well-being of their national citizens.

Autor seab fookust:

I agree with Habermas that neoliberalism challenges the process of building a European demos. Following Michael Freeden’s (1996, 2003) work on ideologies, however, I wish to question the univocal and ‘rigid’ understanding of nationalism and neoliberalism, still within liberalism, that underlies Habermas’s approach to people-building.

… ja eesmärgi:

I aim to show that we are living under a neoliberal political – not exclusively economic – institutional model of postnational or cosmopolitan integration: a neoliberal cosmopolitan federation of market-states.


Neoliberalism stands as a threat to the building of a European people. […]Under neoliberalism, the imperatives of the market prevail over politics (Habermas, 2012), implying that instead of being embedded within state borders, national economies are embedded in transnational markets. Hence, neoliberal global imperatives challenge the nation state’s own capacity for autonomous action, namely the welfare state’s fragile accomplishments (Habermas, 2003, 2008, 2015). […] Summing up, the neoliberal marketization of the public sphere contributes to the reinforcement of an older, pre-political stereotype of the nation as an index of descent and origin.

… ja ohud:

Summing up, neoliberalism runs against not only Habermas’s conception of peoples and people-building but also those liberal principles (and practices) that underlie peoplebuilding, including principles related to universal human rights (civil, political and social), the liberal principle of limited political power and the liberal commitment to rational deliberation on the political (constitutional) principles of their polities. […] Neoliberal cosmopolitanism and anti-nationalism can take on the character of antidemocratic and anti-liberal nationalism.

Rawlsi kommentaar:

Rawls clearly stated (regarding the EU): One question the Europeans should ask themselves . . . is how far reaching they want their union to be . . . The large open market including all of Europe is [the] aim of the large banks and the capitalist business class whose main goal is simply larger profit. The idea of economic growth, onwards and upwards, with no specific end in sight, fits this class perfectly. If they speak about distribution, it is [al]most in terms of trickle down. The long-term result of this . . . is a civil society awash in a meaningless consumerism of some kind. I can’t believe that that is what you want. (Rawls & Van Parijs, 2003, p. 9)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

While agreeing with Habermas on the relationship between neoliberalism and nationalism, this article has added that (a) there is a neoliberal version of nationalism; (b) we are living in a hybrid cosmopolitan and nationalistic neoliberal EU; (c) under neoliberalism, the EU is ultimately united by illiberal and anti-democratic national peoples who are utterly unable to act in concert; and (d) we currently stand at the crossroads between neoliberal cosmopolitan and nationalistic anti-democratic versions of nationalism (including neoliberal nationalism) and a cosmopolitan, postnational form of democracy, or an EU of national peoples.

Queiroz, R. (2021). Habermas on people-building in the European Union. European Journal of Social Theory, 24(4), 581–600.