Kaks keskset trendi:

“There are two important trends in European demographics: the birth rate is decreasing, and people are living longer (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2017).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Keskne küsimus:

“Who should take care of our oldest and most needy parents and grandparents?” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Mis on kõige olulisem aspekt elus?

“For several decades, the European Values Study has regularly sought to determine what respondents consider their most important aspect of life. The answer has been constantly and universally the same: family (see: https://www.atlasofeuropeanvalues.eu/maptool.html).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Solidaarsuspõhimõte:

“The latter can be described by the concept of intra-family solidarity (Bengtson, 2001; Bengtson & Roberts, 1991), which includes two main norms: parents should take care of their children and adult children should take care of their ageing parents and grandparents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Laste suhtumist vanemate hooldamisse käsitlevaid pikiuuringuid on üksikuid:

“Longitudinal research considering changes in attitudes towards filial responsibility (AFR) is surprisingly scarce. Using population-based samples compiled in Southern California from 1985 to 2000, Gans and Silverstein (2006) revealed that AFR decreased over time. Similar results were evident in a study by Hsu et al. (2001), who used population-based samples compiled in Taiwan from 1984 to 1995.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Andmestik ja periood:

“This study used data from 11 European countries collected between 2001 and 2017 to capture the more recent changes in AFR between these time points. Europe has undergone significant demographic and social changes during the first two decades of the 21st century, including population ageing, increased participation of women in the labour market, and significant expansion of the European Union. Importantly, the data used in this study makes it possible to compare changes in AFR between European societies.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 6)

Perekonna tähendusväli:

“For example, Reher (1998) views Mediterranean countries as societies with strong family status and Northern and Central European countries as societies where the family status is weak and the individual status is strong. In countries with strong family ties, young adults remain in the same household as their parents for a long time until they marry and start their own families.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 7) […] “In countries with weak family ties, young people become independent at an early age and start living independently of their parents before committing to a relationship and starting a family of their own.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 7)

Valitsemiskorralduse mõju:

“Individuals in countries with high levels of public services and transfers, such as Nordic countries, are not prepared to commit to strong standards of informal care. However, in Mediterranean and many Eastern European countries, because it is often difficult to obtain public support for coping with caregiving responsibility, it is only natural that the normative pressure to provide informal care increases (Calzada & Brooks, 2013; Marckman, 2017).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 8)

Individualismi-kollektivismi skaala:

“In cultures that emphasise collectivism, the family, other nearby communities, or the nation define the status and behaviour of people. In individualistic cultures, on the other hand, people are autonomous and relatively independent of communal norms. Individualistic cultures prioritise the individual’s own goals and aspirations. (Triandis, 2001; Hui and Triandis, 1986)” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 9)

Naiste tööhõive:

“The goals concerning increasing the employment rate of women have clearly been successful. From the point of view of our research, it is especially interesting to examine the development of the employment rate of women approaching retirement age, because these women are mainly expected to take on increasing responsibility for the care of their own parents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 12)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The main finding was that in 2017 the level of AFR was more negative than in 2001 in 10 countries. Generally speaking, this change seems to apply to both sexes and all age groups. Most drastically, however, the change concerns those who have traditionally borne the greatest responsibility in caring for their ageing parents, namely women in late middle age.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 20) […] “Perhaps the most important change affecting the family unit, however, relates to the improved position of women in the labour market. In this respect, the change in Europe over the past couple of decades has been downright dramatic, with developments unlikely to change its course.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 20) […] “In many countries, welfare systems are still very family-oriented, with the assumption that the younger generations (in practice, women) are ultimately responsible for taking care of their parents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 21) […] “Several research findings support the idea that the younger generations want to participate in the care of their parents and grandparents in the future. However, the kind of care that people are ready to commit to and the kind of division of labour that is desired among family, public service, and market-based solutions must be determined through a comprehensive study.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 23)

Kääriäinen, J., Danielsbacka, M., & Tanskanen, A. O. (2022). Attitudes towards filial responsibility between 2001 and 2017 in Europe. INVEST Working Papers 61/2022, 1–38.