Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks kuuluda paljude juhtimiskursuste ja strateegilise juhtimise aga ka organisatsiooni baaskursuste kohustusliku lugemisvara hulka. Mõistagi oleks teksti kasulik lugeda kõikidel neil, kel puutumus organisatsioonidega aga ka näiteks lapsevanemal.


Digital transformation has become a significant theme in global strategy as born-digital firms like Google,, Alibaba, and Amazon as well as billion-dollar unicorns like Uber, Pinduoduo, Airbnb, and TikTok have come to dominate the collective imagination. These reinventions of traditional industries, many of which challenge global boundaries, have led to a common belief that digital transformation “changes everything.”

Autorid seavad eesmärgid:

In this paper, our goals are to (a) unpack the puzzle of digital transformation for established firms operating on a global stage and (b) offer a related research agenda. These firms are not “born-digital” start-ups (Monaghan, Tippmann, & Coviello, 2020).

… ja väidavad, et transformatsioon ei ole iseeneslik objektiivne nähtus, vaid otsus:

In summary, we argue that digital transformation is not an objective state, but rather a strategic choice from an array of alternatives. Thus, digital transformation will likely look different and be different for different executives, even for those whose firms compete in the same industry or country.

Esimene pinge:

One core tension within digital transformation is products (ie, goods and services) vs platforms. By platforms, we mean intermediaries that facilitate transactions and govern interactions between distinct user groups (Rietveld & Schilling, 2021). […] A key strategic implication of digital transformation is to encourage creating or joining a platform as an attractive strategy for global firms. The former demands identifying a valuable core interaction or suitable product to form the basis of the platform (Ott & Eisenhardt, 2020).

Teine pinge:

A second tension is firms vs ecosystems. By ecosystem, we mean the set of components and complements that collectively deliver a value proposition to users (Kapoor, 2018). Ecosystems can influence whether and how a firm can capture new market opportunities (Ozcan & Eisenhardt, 2009).

Kolmas pinge:

A third core tension within digital transformation is people vs tools. Indeed, digital tools are at the very center of our collective conceptualization of digital transformation. By digital tools, we mean software-based applications and algorithms that perform specific tasks.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Yet digital transformation does not entirely remove boundaries—that is, the future is not one of massive, scale-free monopolists that disrupt whole swaths of global industries. Instead, digital transformation sometimes rewrites boundaries such as with the scaling of digital platforms. Yet at other times, digital transformation retains familiar boundaries such as the cultural, linguistic, and regulatory limits to digital platforms. […] To understand digital transformation more deeply requires disaggregating it into tractable constructs and well-defined tradeoffs, while also retaining an appreciation for its systemic complexity. As a first step, we identify three core tensions at the heart of digital transformationproducts vs platforms, firms vs ecosystems, and people vs tools.

Furr, N., Ozcan, P., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (2022). What is digital transformation? Core tensions facing established companies on the global stage. Global Strategy Journal.