Proloog ratsionaalsest valikust ühiskondliku käitumise seletajana

Sedalaadi teoreetilisi artikleid, mida nö puhastverd praktikutele (loe: need, kes ümbritseva seletamiseks teooriate poole ei pöördu) võiks soovitada. Siinviidatu oleks huvitav lugemine, sest avab nii ratsionaalse valiku piiratuse kui püüab näidata teid selle ületamiseks. Ühtlasi on kirjandusülevaade väga heaks võimaluseks huvilistel ülevaate saamiseks.
Lugemisjärgne viktoriiniküsimus oleks: millega siinses pakutud alternatiiv hätta jääb?

Kontekstiks:

RCP [ratsionaalse valiku teooria] is abstract, however, and ‘requires supplementary empirical content through specification of the relevant aims and choice situations’ (Bernasco, 2009). Crime researchers therefore increasingly supplement RCP with theoretical insights from Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT; see Brantingham, 2013; Johnson, 2014; Johnson et al., 2009b). […] OFT is a behavioural ecology framework that studies how organisms’ behavioural patterns of gathering food are the result of evolutionary and ecological forces

Autorite lubadus:

In this article we review the published OFT-inspired crime research and identify knowledge gaps, methodological limitations and opportunities for future research.

Optimal Foraging Theory – kesksed elemendid:

All animals must eat in order to sustain themselves, but they differ in what food they choose to eat and how they gather that food. OFT aims to explain these differences, assuming that ecological and individual constraints, in addition to evolutionary stress, pressure animals to optimize their foraging activities over extended periods of time […] Decision: the problem or choice to be optimized (for example, how long to stay in a food patch). Currency: the quantity in which the decision outcomes are evaluated (for example, energy, which is generated by food intake and spent by efforts to search and pro- cess food). Constraints: the limits on the available choice options and payoffs (for example, travel speed, hours of sunlight, food processing time, presence of competitors or predators).

Optimal Foraging Theory – sisenemine kriminoloogiasse

Fagan and Freeman (1999) were probably the first to refer to foraging in a criminological context by comparing the switching between legal and illegal income-generating activities with the foraging decisions that animals face […] Johnson and Bowers (2004b) compared burglars’ subsequent target choices to foraging strategies, and Felson (2006) noted the similarities between aspects of crimi- nal decision-making and questions addressed in animal ecology

Mõned järeldused:

The 32 selected studies addressed four research topics, although foraging models are mostly applied to study the spatiotemporal clustering of crime (24 studies) and to a much lesser degree to the other research topics – location choice (five studies), target choice (two studies), and offender mobility (one study). […] Our review established that the application of OFT is mostly restricted to explaining spatiotemporal distributions of crime. […] Although spatiotemporal studies dominate OFT-inspired empirical crime research, the reverse is not true. Neither OFT nor RCT are dominant theories in criminological research that addresses spatiotemporal questions. Instead, scholars principally rely on the geometry of crime (Brantingham et al., 2016), a subset of Crime Pattern Theory […] the heuristic value of the wide range of hypotheses that have been formulated through the years have already proven to be productive in generating new research directions for crime research

Vandeviver, C., Neirynck, E., & Bernasco, W. (2021). The foraging perspective in criminology: A review of research literature. European Journal of Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/14773708211025864