Iseenesest ei ole ju üllatus, et haritud inimesed teevad arukaid otsuseid. Küll aga võiks eeldada, et valitsejad on piisavalt targad, et kujundada kontekst, kus ka vähemharitud inimesed teeksid valikuid, mis oleksid kasulikumad neile endile nii tervise kui majanduslike võimaluste aspektist kui ka oleksid kasulikud kestliku arengu ja ühiskonna üldise koherentsuse hüvanguks. Kõik inimesed ei pea ju tingimata kõrgkooli minema, et tervisele ja heaolule asjakohaseid valikuid teha. Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda nii jalgratturitele kui neile, kes ei sõida rattaga, aga ka valitsejatele ja valitsetavatele üldisemalt.
Cycling has several individual and societal advantages. At the macro-level, cycling contributes to environmental sustainability because it neither emits CO 2 nor contributes to noise pollution, and because it is space-efficient (Gössling et al., 2016; Heinen et al., 2010).
Kes võiks rattasõidust suurimat kasu lõigata?
People with lower education might particularly benefit from this means of transport, as they have, on average, lower incomes and poorer health (Hendi, 2017; Mäki et al., 2013; Zajacova et al., 2021).
Autor püstitab hüpoteesi:
This article hypothesises that, under given opportunities and constraints, higher education increases people’s propensity to choose cycling.
I analyse data from the largescale, nationally representative study Mobility in Germany 2017, which contains information on individuals and the trips they made on a specific reference day. The subpopulation analysed is restricted to short-distance trips (0.5–7.5 km) taken by working-age people (25–65 years) who live in German cities with at least 50,000 inhabitants.
Transpordivahendite valik ei ole ainult valik ühest kohast teise liikumiseks:
A specific mode of transport is not just a means to get from A to B; there is a deeper social meaning underlying it (Green et al., 2012; Guell et al., 2012). The use of a specific transport mode and device is a social practice that is part of a habitus, is subject to social norms and signals a certain social status (Bourdieu, 1984; Frater and Kingham, 2020; Horton et al., 2016; Steinbach et al., 2011). The desire for social status is a fundamental human motive that drives people’s behaviour (Anderson et al., 2015).
Mõnel poole on jalgrattaga sõit madala staatuse tunnus:
For instance, a qualitative study from London, where cycling rates are low but quickly growing, shows that some view cycling as low-status transport: ‘When you’ve made it, you buy a car, not a bicycle’ (Steinbach et al., 2011: 1126).
Aga on ka teisi perspektiive:
For example, young, educated people in India, many of them with high salaries in the IT sector, use bicycles for distinction. They aim to signal their environmental awareness, but they will only cycle if they can be confident that this behaviour is interpreted as a voluntary choice, if the bicycle ‘is expensive and if people around them know that they can buy a car if they want to’ (Anantharaman, 2017: 872).
This study examines short-distance trips of working-age city residents in Germany and shows that those with higher education consistently and significantly more often choose to cycle than those with lower education. […] Furthermore, it shows that the observed behavioural differences are not a result of educational influence on overarching factors that determine people’s decision leeway between different modes of transport. Instead, these results suggest that education affects decision making: when faced with similar travel options, people with higher education are systematically more likely to choose to cycle than are people with lower education.
Hudde, A. (2022). Educational Differences in Cycling: Evidence from German Cities. Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1177/00380385211063366