“Kohaloleku suurendamine” on üks politsei mantratest, mida kasutatakse nii organisatsioonisiseses töökorralduses, politsei ja tegevuskeskkonna sidustamisel kui ka näiteks eelarvekõnelustel. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et pakub hea ülevaate nii teoreetilistest perspektiividest kui esitab empiirilisi tõendeid.

Kontekstist:

Criminological theory has placed police presence at its core. Deterrence theory suggests that criminal activity can be deterred through police presence (Durlauf & Nagin, 2011). […] In contrast, incapacitation theory discusses how to improve crime prevention measures by increasing the percentage of solved crimes (e.g. clearance rates) and incapacitating offenders (e.g. Mastrobuoni, 2019; Blanes i Vidal & Kirchmaier, 2018). […] Deterrence theory understands police as a symbol of the criminal justice apparatus, while incapacitation theory tries to explain how successful this apparatus operates.

Autorid sõnastavad politsei kohaloleku tähenduse siinviidatud tekstis:

Police Presence at core is less concerned with performative aspects of policing and patrols (i.e., how they police), but rather focused on the structural characteristics of it (i.e., where and when they police, how many officers are present, how long they are present). It describes social, spatial, and temporal aspects of police work, which can be measured as definite quantities.

Ambitsioon:

we want to know: what are quantitative and qualitative effects of police presence?

Kohalolekust on kasu siis, kui …

Police presence is most effective when focused on specific places and specific types of crime, in particular motor vehicle theft, violent crimes, property crime, gun-related crimes and liquor infractions (see Ratcliffe et al., 2011; Taylor et al., 2011; Sorg et al., 2013; Novak et al., 2016; Fitterer et al., 2017). All mentioned crime types have one aspect in common, they are rather easily detectable in public spaces and, thus, more policeable for officer. Further, police actions can be focused on a temporal scale. Deriving from routine activity theory, certain times of the day, or seasons, appear to be more prone to specific criminal activity (e.g. Felson, 2002, 2008; Felson & Eckert, 2018).

Kohaloleku karakteristikud:

Police presence is influenced by its nuanced characteristics. Evidence was presented that unit size (Armour, 1986; Kaplan et al., 2000; Ravani & Wang, 2018; Williams & Coupe, 2017), use of flashing lights (Medina et al., 2009; Nakano et al., 2019) and vehicle mobility (Richards et al., 1985; Sisiopiku & Patel, 1999) influence crime reduction, traffic regulation or perception effects of police presence. Simpson (2019) and Simpson et al. (2020) found that police cars with a black and white vehicle paint are more positively received than white and blue models and that the placement of an officer ‘dummy’ 3 can reduce traffic speed on busy urban roads.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

This systematic review of 49 studies provides substantial evidence that police presence can generate significant positive effects for crime prevention, traffic regulation, and citizens’ feeling of safety, when police efforts are focused on specific areas, times, and crime types.

Dau, P. M., Vandeviver, C., Dewinter, M., Witlox, F., & Vander Beken, T. (2021). Policing Directions: a Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Police PresenceEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 1-35