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Kontekstiks:

In 2017, Fake News was selected as the Word of the Year by Collins Dictionaries (2017). Although the term has been present in debates and discourses since late 2016, both its intension and extension are unclear, and the question of whether fake news is a sound concept at all has not yet been decided.

Paralleelne termin:

Another common view is that fake news is a form of Bullshit in the way Frankfurt (2005) used the term (Jaster and Lanius 2018; Mukerji 2018). For Frankfurt, a bullshitter is a person who does not care whether a particular statement is true or false. Frankfurt regards the ‘lack of connection to a concern with truth—this indifference to how things really are—[…] as of the essence of bullshit’. (Frankfurt 2005, 3334).

Autor lubab:

In this article, I add two more reasons for being sceptical towards fake news. Firstly, most of the given definitions present fake news as a kind of text […] Secondly, a common proposal to combat fake news is a return to truth.

Näited:

Some articles have been mentioned frequently in the discourse since 2016 as exemplifications of fake news, such as: ‘Pope Francis Shocks World, Endorses Donald Trump for President, Releases Statement’ (originally published by WTOE 5 News, republished by Ending the Fed on September 26, 2016), 3 ‘WikiLeaks CONFIRMS Hillary sold weapons to ISIS… Then drops another BOMBSHELL! Breaking news’ (published by The Political Insider on August 4, 2016),4 or ‘IT’S OVER: Hillary’s ISIS Email Just Leaked & It’s Worse Than Anyone Could Have Imagined’ (published by Ending the Fed on October 11, 2016).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

This approach shows that calling something fake news means that opinions about what is true and false have hardened. Those who call something fake news do so for specific reasons and with the disposition to justify their assertions.

Hainscho, T. (2022). Calling the news fake: The underlying claims about truth in the post-truth era. Philosophy & Social Criticism. https://doi.org/10.1177/01914537211066854