Siinviidatu tegeleb pragmatismi perspektiiviga poliitika ja sotsiaalteoorias. Ja kuna pragmatist on käitumisteooria, siis nii ta oma koha siin leidiski.Kuigi ajakirja pealkiri – Philosophy and Social Criticism – võib ehmatada, siis artikkel on väga nauditavas stiilis kirjutatud ning tegu on erinumbrit sisejuhatava tekstiga, mida tasuks lugeda kõikidel, kes inglise keeles loevad.

Kontekstiks liberaalse demokraatia kriisist:

“Liberal democracy is in crisis.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 2) […] From the viewpoint of critics of neoliberalism (e.g. Harvey 2007, Biebricher 2019), the ideological shift following the ‘end of history’ (Fukuyama 1992) set off a transition from democracy to post-democracy (Crouch 2004).” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Kihistumise probleem:

“From this point of view, the crisis of liberal democracy manifests in the lack of capacity and/or political will to provide all citizens with adequate living conditions and the economic and social background to participate in all dimensions of society (e.g. politics, education and work) and the lack of organized powerful organizations that make it their goal to promote socio-political interests.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Populistid saabusid:

“Strategy and political program of populist parties attract large parts of the population in various liberal democratic countries, as they organize around contested issues that political elites are unwilling to address as real problems (e.g. migration, terrorism, unemployment) and provide simple solutions to solve these complex problems (e.g. building a wall, banning Muslims from entry, bringing industries back to the global North). As populists and their parties undermine the principles, practices and institutions of democracy, they have undoubtedly deepened the crisis of liberal democracy.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 3)

Pragmatistlik poliitikateooria:

“Pragmatist political theory, for instance, assumes that negative consequences of action are always potential problems that require resolution (Dewey 1927; Honneth 1998; Ansell 2011; Aligica 2013; Petersen, Seeliger, Brunkhorst 2021). Pluralism – of ideas, problems, potential solutions, identities, etc. – is the foundation of pragmatist political thought.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 6)

Pragmatism kui käitumisteooria:

“As pragmatism is, first of all, an action theory (Mead 1934: 254; Joas 1996), the actor perspective and the practices associated with it take centre stage (Bacon 2012). Instead of focussing on the solitary individual, however, pragmatism models action interactively.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 7)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Exploring the contemporary phenomena of ‘alternative facts’ and the extent to which pragmatism and ethics are suspended in order to embrace increasingly outlandish dogmas, Kunz and Abel argue that a pragmatist ethics of belief points to a political praxis with stronger commitments to connecting belief with truth.” (Petersen et al., 2022, p. 9)

Petersen, F., Brunkhorst, H., & Seeliger, M. (2022). Critical problems and pragmatist solutions. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/01914537221114916