Strateegia on organisatsioone puudutavas retoorikas üsna levinud ning mõned organisatsioonid on seda püüdnud väljendada, mõned rakendada ja mõned hoida pidevas teisenemises. Tõsi, strateegia tähendusväli organisatsioonide valdkonnas on avar, sestap tuleb ka üldistustega ettevaatlik olla. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et kajastab strateegiaküsimusi digimuutuste kontekstis. Minule pakub see huvi juba põhjusel, et hetkel on lõpujärgus üks uuring, kus analüüsin kaheksa avaliku organisatsiooni strateegiadokumente viimase kahe pandeemiapiirangutest mõjutatud aasta kontekstis. Ükski vaadeldud strateegiadokument ei ole vähemalt kättesaadavate materjalide põhjal muutmisele läinud. Ometi on ses valdkonnas toimunud tohutud muutused.
Addressing the issue of how firms create value across markets – rather than how they build competitive advantage within a single business – corporate strategy focuses on the raison d’être of the multibusiness firm; the appropriate scope of the firm; how diversified companies are effectively organized and managed; as well as specific topics, such as mergers and acquisitions, divestitures, alliances, vertical integration, and the role of headquarters (Chandler, 1962; Collis and Montgomery, 1998).
… the theory of the firm …
the firm is seen as a “governance structure” with a cluster of complementary attributes—the existence of employment contracts, managerial hierarchies, concentration of decision rights over productive assets, and the use of relatively “soft” incentives and the implicit contract law of “forbearance” to regulate transactions (Williamson, 1996). In this perspective, the firm is regarded as a way of allocating resources that differs from allocation of resources by means of prices and contracts.
Tehnoloogiad, mis muudavad organisatsioonide valdkonda:
most theories of the firm would agree on the role of technology as a critical determinant of the boundaries of the firm, its functioning, and its effective management. In his landmark article, Coase (1937) pointed to a core technology of his day, the telephone, in shaping firm boundaries
we seek to address how digitalization influences corporate strategy, using the theory of the firm as an umbrella term and interpretive lens to identify the mechanisms that link changes in digitalization to changes in corporate strategy
The digital age, also known as the information age, is a historical period, beginning with the advent of computers in the 1960s and continuing to the present day, characterized by rapid increases in the electronic processing and sharing of information. […] digital technologies have led to drastic changes in the nature of firms, competition, and industries and markets. These changes in the digital age affect how multibusiness firms can gain a corporate (competitive) advantage and add value through their corporate strategies, as we discuss in detail below
In 1980, only two “tech” companies, IBM and AT&T were among the ten most valuable firms, alongside GE, Exxon and a range of other industrials. On March 31, 2021 the top ten list featured seven digital firms, Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, Alphabet, Facebook, Tencent, and Alibaba, the first four each with a market value of more than USD 1 trillion.
We also propose foundational strategies for future research. In particular, we suggest that there is a need to develop knowledge that accounts for the new realities of the digital age, and thus research that examines existing and new corporate strategy phenomena by building on existing theories and by developing new theories of the firm.
Menz, M., Kunisch, S., Birkinshaw, J., Collis, D. J., Foss, N. J., Hoskisson, R. E., & Prescott, J. E. (2021). Corporate strategy and the theory of the firm in the digital age. Journal of Management Studies.