Politsei käitumine on alati kontekstuaalne ja sellisena oleks seda asjakohane ka mõtestada nii väliste vaatlejate-tunnetajate kui politsei enda poolt. Ilmselt aga ei ole harvad need juhud, kui konteksti ala või ülehinnatakse. Õppimise, järelduste tegemise ja mõistmise seisukohast oleks aga kasulik tegeleda mitte tõega, vaid selle kujunemise mõtestamisega. Just nendel põhjustel leidis see lugu siinses voos endale koha.

Kontekstist:

prior research (albeit limited) has documented the salience of structural disadvantage (Smith, 1986) and/or community violence for police shootings in general (Arnio, 2019; Fyfe, 1980; Klinger, 2012) and fatal shootings in particular (Sorensen et al.,1993) Similarly, prior research considering the use of non-lethal force indicates that police officers may utilize context as a cue for danger and consider their environmental surroundings, in addition to situational characteristics, when engaging with the public (Smith, 1986; Terrill & Reisig, 2003).

Eesmärk:

Guided by research on threat perception (Billig, 1985; Miller, 2015; Pinizzotto et al., 2004) and the neighborhood effects literature (Sampson et al., 1997), we examine the effect of local levels of gun ownership on fatal police shootings, controlling for an array of organizational and contextual correlates.

Mõned konteksti tähistavad tähelepanekud:

research has documented several organizational characteristics that shape how officers deploy force […] agencies with higher proportions of female officers tend to be more adept at de-escalating violent confrontations and experience lower rates of use of force […] restrictive use of force policies (e.g. explicit guidelines and limited types of force available) reduced police use of force rates […] police departments with less organizationally complex structures—and therefore greater oversight of officers—have lower average rates of fatal police shootings […] law enforcement agencies often respond to community disorder and a dearth of informal social control in structurally disadvantaged communities by increasing police presence and deploying more aggressive forms of policing

Peamised järeldused:

First, negative binomial models indicated that structural disadvantage is not associated with rates of fatal police shootings […] Second, the results indicated that agencies operating in high crime jurisdictions, as measured by an agency’s violent crime rate, more frequently deployed fatal force […] counties with higher levels of household gun ownership had more fatal police shootings

Autorid soovitavad muuhulgas:

our findings suggest that policies to reduce fatal police shootings should focus on the broader environmental contexts in which police-community interactions occur. While organizational reforms (such as creating civilian roles in law enforcement agencies) may bring modest improvements in police-community interactions, there may be a higher potential for success in reducing fatal shootings by focusing on the reduction of contextual levels of crime and firearm possession.

Keller G. Sheppard, Gregory M. Zimmerman & Emma E. Fridel (2021) Examining the Relevance of Contextual Gun Ownership on Fatal Police Shootings, Justice Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2021.1922733