Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda politseinikele, politseivaldkonnas õppejõuna töötavatele, tudengitele teemasse lugemisel ja näiteks omavalitsustele-poliitikakujundajatele.

Kontekst:

“This essay provides a review of the evidence on how national institutional “landscapes” for policing may affect the strength of either rule of law (ROL) or successful police protection of the public.” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 2)

Autor sõnastab eesmärgi:

“The purpose of this paper is to assess the strengths, limitations, and gaps in the evidence and data for understanding the effects of these landscapes.” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 2)

Rule of Law:

“The United Nations (UN) provides the following definition of the “rule of law” (ROL): A principle of governance in which all persons, institutions, and entities, public, and private, including the state itself, are accountable to [domestic] laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced, and independently adjudicated, that are consistent with international human rights norms and standards.” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 2)

David Bayley raamistik:

“There is a strong link between these ROL frameworks and models of police reform. In developing one of the most important models, Bayley (Bayley, 2006) drew on experience, observation, research, and case studies of international police reform. His starting point was the legal framework for the police and for their independent oversight. He found that police reform (and by implication the rule of law) was rarely, if ever, enhanced by focusing on reorganising, equipping, or training the police.” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 4)

Bayley tüpoloogia:

“Bayley developed a further important typology based on two dimensions of analysis: the centralisation of command and the number of commands. He suggested that these are often confused by an imprecise use of the concepts of centralisation and decentralisation: “The point is that decentralization creates multiple forces, but multiple forces are not always decentralized” (Bayley, 1975).” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 7)

Proaktiivsete politseistrateegiate tõus:

“Over the last 20 years, research has produced a growing list of proactive police strategies that reduce crime and disorder (Academies & of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine., 2018). Many of these, such as hotspot policing, problem-oriented policing, and police-led diversion, have been systematically reviewed (Sherman et al., 2014).” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 10)

Kogukonnakeskse politseistrateegia teisenemine ja muutumatu tuum:

“Originally concerned with engaging police with communities and partnering for prevention, community policing in the twentyfirst century has been stretched to encompass rebuilding law enforcement in postconflict societies and preventing terrorism and radicalisation. Yet, at heart, there remains a relatively simple formula: a shift from a reactive law enforcement model to consultation or collaboration between the police and local citizens for the purpose of defining, prioritising, and/or solving problems.” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 10)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“What works: There are no strategies for sustaining ROL which are clearly evidenced at a nation state level. Two strategies have clear supporting evidence but have not yet been evidenced scaled up for a whole state:” (Neyroud, 2022, p. 17)

Neyroud, P. (2022). Policing “Landscapes” for the Rule of Law and Public Protection: The State of Evidence on Organisational Policies, Structures, and Human Resources. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41887-022-00081-y