Proloog elukeskkonna kujundamise juurde

Siinviidatu on seetõttu hästi oluline, et viitab selgemini kaudsetele kontekstuaalsetele elementidele igapäevaelu ja inimsaatuste kujunemisel. Enesekontrolli seosed hälbiva käitumisega on veenvalt kinnitust leidnud, kuid vahetu elukeskkonna lineaarsed seosed enesekontrolliga ei ole nii selged, ometi oleks loogiline, et siin on seosed. Siinviidatud uuringus autorid just sellega tegelevad ning tekst väärib kindlasti lugemist, kui kellelgi on huvi tegeleda veidi aeganõudvamate ja keerulisemate küsimustega, kui karistusmäärade tõstmine või langus (mis tegelikult võib olla samuti väga keeruline).

Ilma pikema jututa kohe teema juurde:

Rather than exerting a direct effect on self-control, we argue that certain characteristics of neighborhoods may help or hinder effective parents in their efforts to instill self-control in their children. Stated plainly, we expect that neighborhood context will moderate the relationship between effective parenting and self-control.

Viide senisele teadmusele:

Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) strong claim that effective parenting is the primary precursor to self-control, and perhaps the only one worthy of empirical attention. They argued that parents who effectively monitor the behavior of their children, recognize deviant behavior when it occurs, and appropriately punish such behavior will instill self-control in their children.

Lähemale kodu ümbritsevale:

But neighbors can also directly affect juveniles’ self-control as neighborhood parents and other adults engage in informal supervision of activities, often taking on the responsibility of monitoring children other than their own, and sometimes directly intervening to discipline children for inappropriate behavior

Kollektiivse käitumise mõjud:

rather than directly influencing the propensity for delinquency and offending among juveniles, collective efficacy may instead influence the process by which that propensity is developed, such as the extent to which parents are able to instill self-control in their children.

Miks on kohalik sotsiaalne elukeskkond oluline:

Using multilevel data for a large sample of Chicago youth, we found strong, consistent support for our expectation that positive parenting practices are more effectively translated into child self-control in neighborhoods with greater collective efficacy, in neighborhoods with lower neighborhood delinquency, and in neighborhoods where moral cynicism is low.

Seda “retsepti” võiks meeles pidada:

The first explanation addresses the finding that the worst combination of parenting and neighborhood context for the development of self-control is having ineffective parents in the best neighborhoods rather than the worst neighborhoods. […] effective neighborhoods have high collective efficacy, low delinquency, and low moral cynicism.

Vanemad võivad olla väga tublid, aga …

It is important to note that although we have interpreted the conditional effects in our analysis as neighborhood context moderating the relationship between parental effectiveness and self-control, it is equally appropriate to interpret those effects in a converse fashion. That is, we could also argue that the adverse impact of living in a neighborhood plagued by moral cynicism, or weak in collective efficacy, is mitigated by the efforts of highly effective parents.

Stults, B. J., & Swagar, N. (2021). The Role of Neighborhood Context in the Relationship between Parenting Effectiveness and Self-control. Crime & Delinquency, 67(10), 1459–1490. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128720951436