Geograafia ettevalmistusega autor Jerry Ratcliffe kuulub keskkonnakriminoloogia raskekaallaste hulka ning uurib:

Given numerous cities are discussing police involvement in public health-related incidents, this brief contribution describes a year’s worth of public health related calls to police in one city, as evidenced through police administrative records.

Philadelphia näitel jõuab muuhulgas järeldusele:

calls to the police that start or result in some form of medical/public health connection comprise about 8% of the police activity that originates from the public. Many of these incidents reflect policing’s social service role, and could be dealt with by other agencies, though the final call disposition is not easily predicted from the initial CAD classification. Sometimes the only way to determine if a police response is needed is to send a police response.

Ratcliffe, J. H. (2021). Policing and public health calls for service in Philadelphia. Crime Science, 10(1), 1-6.