Politseivägivalla vastased protestid – USAs toimuv leiab palju kajastust, kuid ei tähenda tingimata, et seal on olukord kõige reljeefsem – võivad avaldada mõju nii politseipraktikatele, organisatsioonikujundusele aga ka tsiviilühiskonna arengule üldisemalt. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et autori ambitsioon on ja selle realiseerumine võiks huvi pakkuda paljude valdkondade esindajatele.
An underlying assumption in the study of politics is that protest activity is a critical component of civil society that improves the functioning of a democratic polity (Baumgartner and Leech 1998; Gillion 2013). This assumption is credible in part because social movements—such as the civil rights movement, the LGBTQ movement, or the movement against police brutality—are commonly organized by underrepresented or marginalized groups who have relatively limited access to power (Amenta et al. 2010; Weldon 2011).
This study examines whether the current protest movement opposing police brutality has had any tangible effects on two consequences desired by this social movement: implementing civilian review boards (CRBs) and reducing police-involved fatalities. 1
Nõrgemate mobiliseerimise vahend:
But because protest is frequently a tactic of the powerless (or those with less access to power), it likely motivates more members from underrepresented groups to engage in the political process. Studies of protest against police violence in disadvantaged minority neighborhoods illustrate this point.
Lühipilk policingu arengutesse:
Since 1980, substantial changes in policing practices have encouraged more preemptive stops by officers for minor traffic infractions (Goel, Rao, and Shroff 2016). In addition, police departments expanded officers’ discretion in handling suspects (as opposed to following strict guidelines) (Epp et al. 2014).
Vägivalla põhjuseid tuleks otsida …
Scholars find that persistent racial inequalities in income, residential segregation, and implicit biases shape expectations that escalate violence during encounters between minorities and police officers (Gilbert and Ray 2016). 6 Racial minorities are more likely to be stopped, questioned, or arrested by police, controlling for suspicious behaviors, presence of weapons, neighborhood poverty, and the racial composition of neighborhoods (Eberhardt et al. 2004; Goel et al. 2016; Gross and Mann 2017; Jones 2016; Ross 2015; but see Correll et al. 2007).
In response to demands to end police violence, civil rights campaigns during the 1960s frequently included pleas to establish CRBs, arguing that they provide for more accountability of police when compared to conventional methods of handling complaints about police misbehavior (i.e., internally within police departments) (Finn 2001).
Autori keskne väide:
My core argument is that protest produces both policy change and changes in police behaviors concerning lethal violence through three key mechanisms: signaling, community empowerment, and threats to elites in power.
Autor pakub hea vahendi:
I offer the argument that protest itself changes perceptions of police behavior and mobilizes ordinary citizens through a series of interconnected mechanisms. Protest achieves desired outcomes when it signals the importance of an issue and empowers an aggrieved community to take action.
Mõjutegureid on veelgi:
The analysis of the effect of body camera mandates offers more support for the argument that protest matters for policy change. Although admittedly preliminary, my investigation of the effect of body cameras suggests recent policy changes in police procedures can affect fatalities during police encounters.
Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks vihje järeldustest:
My results show that protests influence cities to establish more powerful citizen oversight boards and they lower fatalities in minority communities. Changes in the form of police oversight, implementation of programs that increase accountability, and changes in policing regarding the use of force may take more time to show an effect.
Olzak, S. (2021). Does Protest Against Police Violence Matter? Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1990 through 2019. American Sociological Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/00031224211056966