Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et isegi surmav vägivald on loomulik. Näiteks on paljude arvates iseenesestmõistetav, et politsei kasutab tulirelvi. Erakordselt vähe on minuni jõudnud mõttekäike, et politsei ehk ei peakski tulirelvi kasutama või siis, et loomulik on pigem ilma tulirelvata politseinik ning relvastatud politseinik on erisus.

Siinviidatu võib huvi pakkuda nii (surmava) vägivalla toetajatele kui nende oponentidele. Kuna tegemist on kirjandusülevaatega, siis võiks tekst huvi pakkuda ka uurijatele-tudengitele.


Between 2009 and 2019 (the most recent data available), 558 police officers were feloniously killed and upwards of 167,000 sustained injuries during police-citizen encounters (FBI, 2020). In 2019 alone, 48 police officers were killed and 17,188 sustained injuries from an assault (FBI, 2020). The lack of a reliable national reporting system limits the availability of information on citizens injured and killed in police-citizen encounters; however, recent estimates indicate that citizens are injured and killed at much higher levels.

Relvad ja politseipraktikad:

Police involvement in the death of a citizen ranks among the highest sources of stress for police officers (Klinger, 2012; Violanti & Aron, 1994), and can contribute to debilitating physiological and physical symptoms (Liberman et al., 2002). Further, the pervasive threat of potential violence and the public‘s reaction to use of force may hamper police willingness to engage in community partnerships and proactive policing strategies (Wolfe & Nix, 2016).

Surma mittepõhjustavatest vahenditest:

Less-than-lethal weapons represent one commonly promoted technology designed to help mitigate harm resulting from police-citizen encounters. […] Since the mid-19th century, police have used less-than-lethal weapons like wooden batons as compliance tools and for personal defense. In the last three decades, police agencies across the world have adopted more technologically advanced weapons, including CEDs and OC spray (Alpert et al., 2011; Morabito & Doerner, 1997).

Autorid lubavad:

This paper carries out a systematic review to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of the empirical research investigating the effects of less-than-lethal weapons on reducing harm during police-citizen encounters.

Vägivald häirib:

Violence arising from police-citizen encounters represents a pressing social problem. Numerous controversial use of force incidents and widespread social movements have given rise to calls for police to reduce harm to citizens while also maintaining a safe occupational environment for officers. Less-than-lethal weapons such as CEDs and OC spray are intended to accomplish both objectives and have been readily adopted by police agencies worldwide. This systematic review set out to address a key question confronting police use of these weapons: Can this intervention reduce harm to both citizens and officers during police-citizen encounters?

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

First, a comprehensive and systematic search of the literature identified only three high-quality evaluations of police use of less-than-lethal weapons.

Sheppard, K. G., & Welsh, B. C. (2022). Can police use of less-than-lethal weapons reduce harm during violent police-citizen encounters? A systematic review and directions for future research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101748.