Ettevõtluse kolimine väljapoole esialgset asukohariiki võib kanda erinevaid eesmärke ja ettevõtlikkus meelelaadina arvatakse olevat kasulik ühiskondliku arengu aspektist. Organisatsioonide rahvusvahelistumise ühe kõrvalaspektina märgitakse võimalikke keskkonnamõjusid.

Konteksti avamisel märgitakse muuhulgas:

By locating key activities abroad, multinational corporations (MNCs) can overcome the constraints of their home country environment and benefit from the comparative strength of institutions in other countries […] Multinational firms may also take advantage of foreign institutional weakness to save on the costs of meeting stringent norms and standards in their home market.

“pollution haven” – mis see on?

the location of manufacturing activities in countries with lax environmental standards

Autorite eesmärk:

In this study, we examine whether and how the stringency of environmental standards in a country influences firms’ decisions to source from that country, distinguishing between offshore integration, that is, sourcing from firms’ own facilities abroad, and offshore outsourcing, that is, sourcing from unrelated parties

Järeldused ei jäta kahtlustele suurt ruumi:

these findings provide strong evidence of a pollution haven effect for both owned and unrelated third party global sourcing. […] Our results show that firms change their share of sourcing from a country in response to a change in institutional standards in that country, and thus highlights cross-border arbitrage by providing empirical confirmation of the pursuit of institutional arbitrage strategies […] By focusing on offshore outsourcing, our study thus emphasizes an important means by which firms can take advantage of weak institutional environments abroad without having to invest in establishing foreign operations

… ja veel

our study highlights the fundamental tension between policies that produce short-term benefits for a country, and those that advance long-term global sustainability. Our findings suggest that countries can improve their competitiveness and attractiveness as a global sourcing location by lowering the stringency of their institutional standards, but that in doing so they may undermine attempts by other countries to curb firm behaviors that have impacts beyond national borders.

Berry, H., Kaul, A., & Lee, N. (2021). FOLLOW THE SMOKE: THE POLLUTION HAVEN EFFECT ON GLOBAL SOURCING. Strategic Management Journal