Juhid ei ole midagi enne ega etteantut, vaid sotsiaalselt konstrueeritud. Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele organisatsioonihuvilistele, kuid mitte ainult. Tekstis on palju sellist, millest võiks kasu olla ka näiteks lapsevanemal, et mõista näiteks erinevate positsioonide kujunemise mehhanisme.
Generals, corporate managers, ministers, bishops, and heads of civil service are all bureaucratic ascenders that are at the apex of their organization’s ofﬁcial authority. The authority associated with their formal positioning may seem ensured at ﬁrst glance, but a constructionist approach would seek the very mechanisms that allow for this achievement (Alvesson, 1996).
A key strategy of top-leaders to mitigate potential dissent is the cultivation of Squires. Described by Weber and Moore (2014), squires are a distinct type of followers that act as facilitators of charisma on behalf of their leaders, assuming diverse mediating roles between leaders and their followers.
At its heart, bureaucracy constitutes formal hierarchical relations and rationality of goals and means, both of which enhance predictability and minimize partisanship. […] In a similar vein, Hodson et al.’s (2012) narrative analysis of organizational ethnographies found four inherent attributes to bureaucracies: divergent goals, patrimonialism, unwritten rules, and chaos. These attributes often lead to rule-breaking practices stemming from personal power gained by organizational agents, that exist in the organizational underlife, rather than its facade.
Mainstream research on charisma focused on leaders’ strategies of enhancing their outstanding clout upon followers. Charismatic leadership was classically deﬁned as a speciﬁc relationship in which followers willingly accept authority, regardless of their own immediate or instrumental interest (Shils, 1965). […] Summing up, leaders strive to enhance their inﬂuence and gain compliance from their followers. Although charismatic attribution is a desirable measure among leaders, it seems that gaining it is not a simple task, especially for top-leaders in bureaucracies.
Galvin et al. (2010) deemed surrogates as followers who actively engage in impression management of the leader’s image, thereby continuously convincing other followers to maintain their zeal and act as exemplars of loyalty and obedience.
A key facet of the PAs’ efforts towards charisma building is that of daily aggrandizing rituals. Aggrandizing rituals consists of several practices aimed at situating the General as an object for charismatic attribution. This is carried out ﬁrst and foremost through the daily routine of the General’s meetings. […] Ergo, frequent organizational rituals, like meetings, repetitively constitute the General’s perceived charisma, since his authority is constantly accentuated in a way that underscores his formal status while downplaying personalized facets.
This form of control is useful when theorizing rule-breaking phenomena in bureaucracies. Gouldner’s (1954) prevalent classiﬁcation of rule breaking considers a divergence of interests between management and workers, while overlooking accounts for cases of conﬂicting interests within management. This blindspot persists in more recent literature (see Martin et al., 2013).
Sang, M., & Golan, O. (2022). Bureaucratic squires: A critical analysis of the construction of charismatic top-leaders. Leadership, 18(3), 427–445. https://doi.org/10.1177/17427150221078442