Juhtimine on midagi, mis toimub kõikjal ja seetõttu oleks arukas püüda mõista erinevaid organisatsiooni “tüüpe” ja ühiskondlikke koosluseid juhtimise perspektiividest. Siinviidatud artikkel võiks olla huvitav vähemalt kolmest perspektiivist:
1) juhtimine ja organisatsioonid
2) kuritegelikud grupid
3) juhtimise ja valitsemisteooriad.

Artikli alguses avavad autorid Taani konteksti üsna ühemõtteliselt ja elegantselt:

In 2017, according to law enforcement officers, Denmark was home to more than 90 outlaw motorcycle gangs and street gangs. They had more than 1,300 members, who according to police, were engaged in a wide range of crimes, including extortion, drug dealing, and robbery (Rigspolitiet 2017).

Vihjed teoreetilisest perspektiivist:

We apply rational choice theories of crime to Danish organized crime. In particular, we apply theories of criminal organization and constitutions to identify key governance challenges (Leeson 2007; Leeson and Skarbek 2010). These theories have been applied in a wide range of geographic and historical contexts. For example, in the context of eighteenth century piracy, pirate ships required self-governance institutions.

Artikli panus autorite sõnastuses:

this paper contributes to our understanding of organized crime groups in a Nordic country by using rational choice theories to understand how gangs operate in a rich country with a strong, effective state. We find that they face important organizational dilemmas, including the principal-agent problem and transaction costs, and that they alter their organizations in response.

Kokkuvõttes märgitakse muuhulgas:

Unlike past work, which argues that organized crime groups emerge in places with failed or weak states (Skaperdas 2001), we find in Denmark that organized crime can operate in places with effective states. […] A second contribution of this article is to extend the economic analysis of criminal organizations. In particular, our research supports the argument that when transaction costs in the market increase, people invest in more centralized organizations.

Sløk-Madsen, S. K., Skarbek, D., Hansen, A., & Rezaei, A. (2021). The organization of Danish gangs: a transaction cost approach. Trends in Organized Crime, 1-17.