Küberkuritegevus on kohal ja sellest räägitakse palju. Millises vahekorras on aga küberkuritegevus n-ö “tavalise” hälbiva käitumisega, seda ei ole kerge mõista ainuüksi põhjustel, et mõlemad on pidevas arengud ning mõlema mõtestamine ja tunnetamine sõltub suuresti igaüheni jõudvas infos ja teadmistest.

Siinviidatu avab küberkuritegevushirmu majanduskuritegevuse perspektiivist ja võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele. Kuritegevushirmust pole pääsu kellelgi, kuid eriti võiks huvitatud olla nii turvalisusega tegelejad kui poliitikakujundajas.

Kontekstiks:

Online technology is fundamental to contemporary society, and its role increased exponentially during the Covid-19 pandemic. Crime data and criminological research show criminals are exploiting this increased dependency on digital technologies. European data show that rates of online crime have been increasing in recent years, far more so than offline crimes (Buil-Gil et al. 2021; Caneppele and Aebi 2019; Kemp et al. 2020; Levi 2017).

Kuriteohirm:

Fear of crime is both a harm in itself and a trigger for other personal welfare-reducing activities, though it may increase welfare if it leads people to avoid ‘reasonably likely’ actual harms. Fears of cybercrimes can lead to reduced participation in economy and society, which becomes more consequential as citizens’ advisory, offline banking and shopping services are reduced and made relatively more expensive, a trend accelerated by the pandemic.

Autorid seavad fookust:

The analysis focuses specifically on fear of economic cybercrime, an umbrella term that covers criminal activity that involves a computer, networked device or a network to conduct online identity theft, online shopping fraud, phishing attacks, etc.

Teoreetilisest perspektiivist:

The basic premise of RAT is that crime is a function of three conditions: the presence of a motivated offender, the availability of a pool of targets that are made vulnerable by their risky routine activities, and a lack of capable guardianship (Cohen and Felson 1979). […] Thus the victim-offender convergence can be achieved when cyberspace acts as proxy of physical space, and transactions are completed across time (Reyns 2011). Yar (2005) concluded that ‘motivated offenders’ and ‘capable guardianship’ concepts could be treated as largely similar between cyber and terrestrial settings.

Andmestik:

Statistical analyses were conducted on the 2018 Eurobarometer Cybersecurity Survey, a study commissioned by the European Commission. […] Therefore, the Eurobarometer is the largest and most comprehensive cybercrime and security survey globally, that is statistically representative of the domestic population in Europe.

Mõned vihjed Eesti kohta:

Interestingly, several Eastern European countries also have lower than average fear, including Estonia, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Hungary. […] These cross-national differences, however, are not irreducible to regional d ferences, as Ireland and Spain had high average levels of fear of economic cybercrime, while Estonia, Slovenia and Slovakia had lower than average levels.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

We found that, in the European context, countries with higher levels of technology infrastructure moderated individual guardianship, a finding that is consistent with multilevel applications of RAT to the study of online identity theft (Williams 2016).

Cook, S., Giommoni, L., Trajtenberg Pareja, N., Levi, M., & Williams, M. L. (2022). Fear of economic cybercrime across Europe: A multilevel application of Routine Activity Theory. The British Journal of Criminology.