Elanike kaasamine politseireformide kavandamisel ja rakendamisel ning politsei eesmärkide ja töötulemuste hindamisel on üks demokraatliku ja ühiskonna huvides tegutseva politsei kujundamise põhitõdedest. See, miks seda põhimõtet paljudes politseiorganisatsioonides eiratakse või rakendatakse formaalselt, on iseküsimus. Siinviidatu artikli peamine väärtus seisneb kaasatuse mitmetasandilisuse rõhutamises ning politsei vahetu käitumise aspektist on oluline kaasamine võimalikult madalal ehk kogukonna tasandil.

Esindusbürokraatia – milleks?

Citizen complaints, use of force, and police-involved deaths, among others, are examples of performance measures used to assess accountability and the exercise of discretion

Esindusbürokraatia esiletõus:

Representative bureaucracy theory has been touted as an important pathway to ensure organizational accountability and effective discretion through the bureaucratic mirroring of the values and needs of constituent populations

Probleem:

Citizen complaints, use of force, and police-involved deaths, among others, are examples of performance measures used to assess accountability and the exercise of discretion (Congressional Research Service 2020). Some of these measures, however, suffer from measurement issues that reduce their validity with regards to accountability. For example, without additional information on whether an officer’s action was formally justified or excessive, a simple decrease in citizen complaints or officer use of force incidents may fail to serve as valid measures of accountability.

Uuringu läbiviimine:

we draw from a national law enforcement survey in the United States containing information on formal citizen complaints that are sustained. Sustained allegations align with Brandsma and Schillemans’ (2012) three-step accountability process consisting of information, discussion, and consequences. Specifically, citizens provide information to a police department through a formal complaint process regarding allegations of officer misconduct

Mõned järeldused:

Citizens are not only passive recipients of police services but constitute the fundamental basis for legitimacy. When use of force is not delivered properly or legally, accountability and legitimacy are called into question and the process in which law enforcement services are delivered requires scrutiny. […] As responsive and accountable public administration is dependent upon the public, citizen evaluations are essential to assessing agency performance and serving as a roadmap to guide the training of future police employees. By employing use of force dispositions as one important indicator, law enforcement organizations can improve responsiveness to the people they serve and ensure accountability in policing.

Kang, S. C., Chang, A., & Williams, B. N. Does Bureaucratic Representation Enhance Overall Organizational Accountability in Policing?. Public Administration.