Covid-19 tingimustes õppides-õpetades-töötades tuli õppida või meelde tuletada või arendada uusi oskuseid, millest ehk n-ö kantilik täisealisus võis olla üheks määravaks eduteguriks. Kuid enesedistsipliin, iseõppimise ja ressursside (nt aeg) haldamise oskus ei pruugi kõikidele olla ühtmoodi lihtne. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et demonstreerib olulisi suhteid erinevate elementide vahel kõrgharidusõppes hakkamasaamiseks. Tekst on vabalevis ja seetõttu pikki kommentaare ei vaja.


Most notably, how we teach and learn has changed from the dominance of face-to face classes to predominantly or fully online learning (i.e., synchronous or asynchronous) or blended learning due to social distancing. Many people have become highly stressed and uneasy due to the radical changes in the educational landscape.

Vabaduse varjukülgedest:

Online learning during COVID-19 has allowed (or forced) students to have more autonomy in terms of how to study, and the time and place to learn. That is, students learn synchronously or asynchronously online at a convenient time and place, including at home. However, autonomy without self-efficacy and self-regulated learning may have negative results, such as procrastination.

Autorid seavad uurimisküsimused:

  1. What are the influences of self-efficacy for learning and resource management on learning engagement?
  1. Does the depression level of students moderate the influences of selfefficacy for learning and resource management on learning engagement?


According to the World Health Association (WHO), depression is defined as a common mental health disorder that often results in a downcast mood, loss of interest, feelings of low self-esteem, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration (Garvik, Idsoe, & Bru, 2014).


Self-efficacy related to learning is another psychological factor impacting learning engagement. Self-efficacy is defined as “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997, p. 3). […] In particular, self-efficacy for learning is positively related to self-regulated learning.

Enesereguleeritud õpe:

According to Pintrich (2000), self-regulated learning includes four phases in sequence: (1) forethought, planning, and activation, (2) monitoring, (3) control, and (4) reaction and reflection. […] Self-regulated learning strategies include four aspects: (1) cognition, (2) metacognition, (3) motivation, and (4) resource management such as behavioral control (Barak, Hussein-Farraj, & Dori, 2016; Wolters, Pintrich, & Karabenick, 2005).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

The findings indicate that self-efficacy positively influenced resource management including time and study environment management as well as effort regulation in both groups. […] Instead, in the depressed group, self-efficacy indirectly i enced learning engagement through resource management. To compensate for some learners’ lower levels of self-efficacy, there should be further support to help students become more competent in self-regulated learning and effectively allocate personal resources when faced with challenging learning situations.

Heo, H., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2022). Influences of depression, self-efficacy, and resource management on learning engagement in blended learning during COVID-19The Internet and Higher Education, 100856.