Siinviidatu vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, sest tegeleb toimetulekuga turbulentsis. Eriti võiks tekst aga huvi pakkuda valitseijatele, juhtidele ja tudengitele, sest näitab, kuidas brikolaaž praktika ja mõtteviisina võiks aidata toime tulla lakkamatute muutuste ja piiratud ressursside tingimustes. Tõsi, avalikus ruumis võib märgata brikolaaži toetavat retoorikat, kuid paljud etableerunud igapäevapraktikad tasalülitavad sedalaadi ideed või püüdlused kiirestil.

Kontekstiks:

We seem to be living in times of frequent, intensified and overlapping crises. The list of disruptive and potentially threatening crisis events seems never-ending, including financial crises leading to increasing poverty, the worldwide refugee crisis, security threats related to terrorism, and cyber-attacks, global warming generating climate chaos, and recently the COVID-19 pandemic.

Autorid väidavad …

We argue that to build robust governance responses, elected officials, public managers, and street-level bureaucrats must engage in bricolage and become bricoleurs in order to flexibly combine elements from competing and co-existent public governance paradigms.

… ja seavad eesmärke:

This article aims to take the latter argument one step further, claiming that multiparadigmatic governance, that mixes and matches different governance practices, has become a basic condition in the contemporary public sector, and that it helps to provide the conditions for a robust public governance in turbulent times.

Paradigmad – püsivad või kooseksisteerivad ja pidevalt muutuvad?

The paradigm concept comes from Kuhn (1970), who claimed that scientific revolutions replacing one paradigm with another are extremely rare, leaving us with centuries of stable normal science. […] More recently, it has been argued that new public governance paradigms emerge at shorter and shorter intervals and that the increasing numbers of paradigms are not only competing, but also co-existing in changing relations of dominance, depending on political whims and institutional conditions (Carstensen & Matthijs, 2018; Torfing et al., 2020).

Mis on turbulents?

Turbulence is defined as “a situation where events, demands, and support interact and change in highly variable, inconsistent, unexpected, or unpredictable ways” (Ansell & Trondal, 2018, pp. 2–3)

Turbulents kutsub esile teatud praktikaid:

We claim that turbulent problems call for governance strategies aiming to produce robust solutions and enhance societal robustness. […] As we develop the concept here, governance robustness is a property of public institutions, political and administrative processes, and policy instruments. As such, we define robust governance strategies as the ability of public and private decision-makers to uphold a public ambition, function or value in the face of the stress and disruption stemming from turbulent events and problems through the flexible adaptation, creative design, and pragmatic redirection of governance solutions (Ansell et al., 2020).

Brikolaaž:

Building on the seminal work of Levi-Strauss (1966), bricolage is commonly conceived as “making do by applying combinations of the resources at hand to new problems and opportunities” (Baker & Nelson, 2005, p. 331). […] The bricoleur faces a situation similar to the one faced by public managers operating under turbulent circumstances.

Brikolaaž – mõtteviis ja praktika:

To understand bricolage as practice and mind-set, it is useful to present it in terms of: (1) the contingent repertoire of the disparate ideas, tools and actions available to the bricoleur; (2) the situated dialogue taking place when defining and addressing problems; and (3) the outcomes produced through that very process (Duymedjian & Rüling, 2010).

Brikolaaž on erinev:

[…] bricoleurs are less interested in lengthy processes aiming to construct innovative designs for the future and more focused on using available materials in new and creative ways to swiftly solve a pressing problem. […] the bricoleur is focusing less on connecting people and more on articulating different ideas, tools, and practices that are available to different groups of actors who are engaged in creative problem-solving. […] bricoleurs are not spending much time and energy on arranging processes of joint problem-solving; instead, they are directly involved in the process of putting dissimilar elements together to form feasible solutions.

Kollektiivne brikolaaž:

For collective bricolage to take place, two or more actors must reach agreement on the repertoire of available resources (potentially sharing resources to which they have unique access), engage in a joint dialogue about their potential meaning and potential use, and jointly develop and test a prototypical solution.

Kolm keskset institutsiooni:

First, bricolage requires institutions flexible enough to allow for experimentation within and across units, levels, sectors, and governance paradigms. […] Second, to establish a common dialogue, maintain a common storyline as they build from different paradigms, and to strengthen the legitimacy of the process, bricoleurs need strong institutions for inclusive deliberation, knowledge sharing, and joint learning. […] Finally, the institutional setup must afford agents with the capacity for effective action.

Carstensen, M. B., Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2022). Why we need bricoleurs to foster robust governance solutions in turbulent timesPublic Administration.