Avaliku juhtimise ja poliitikateaduste vahekord on pidevas teisenemises ja seda on ilmselt märganud kõik, kes nende valdkondade erinevate ajastute tekste on lugenud. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et autor – avaliku juhtimise ja poliitikateaduste suurkuju Donald F. Kettl -, avab uuesti nende kahe (kolme?) valdkonna ühendamisest. Või kas eristamine ongi üldse eristamine või hoopis analüütiline perspektiiv?
Tekst võiks lugemishuvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, kuid eriti juhtimise ja valitsemishuvilistele.
“The questions are ironic, because public administration had been one of the five founding fields of the American Political Science Association (APSA), according to the first issue of the American Political Science Review in 1903. There was comparative government (explored through the role of colonial empires); public law (including constitutional law and jurisprudence); international law; political theory; and then public administration.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 1)
Muna ja kana küsimus on lahendatud:
“So not only was public administration part of political science more than a century ago. Political science grew from public administration, with a particular focus on government’s role in transforming policy into results.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 2)
Rõhuasetused tõukasid eri suundadesst:
“After the war, public administrationists sought to bring the practical lessons of government into war into the discipline. At the same time, political science was seeking to make the discipline more scientific. These distinctly different missions provided the important wedge that began driving political science and public administration farther apart.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 3)
Herbert Simoni raamat tõi suunamuutuse:
“Herbert A. Simon’s classic, Administrative Behavior, set the stage for the political science’s transformation (1947). He broke with public administration’s focus on structure and process to look at behavior and decisionmaking. He saw organizations as a complex pattern of relationships among humans, built on communication, information, and incentives.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 3)
“The work proved enormously influential and produced one of the two Nobel Prizes won by scholars in political science and public administration (Simon’s in 1978 and Elinor Ostrom’s in 2009, both ironically in economics). This work, along with the rise of the policy sciences (Lasswell et al., 1951), pluralism (Dahl, 1961) and voting studies (Campbell et al., 1960), drove political science in the opposite direction of public administration, which increasingly found itself without a comfortable home in the association it helped to create decades earlier.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 4)
Avaliku juhtimise väljal toimus eraldumine:
“Then a small group of scholars began meeting regularly to focus on public management, distinguished from public administration by its strong focus on how best to improve the outcomes of public programs. Its first meeting in Syracuse had just 15 scholars in attendance. Afterward, there was a consensus that the meeting was useful and that it should be repeated—but not too soon, so as not to weaken attendance. The next meeting was in Madison, with an attendance of 35 (full disclosure: I co-chaired this second conference).” (Kettl, 2022, p. 5)
Juhtimine ja administreerimine evivad erinevaid fookuseid. Kas leppimatult?
“Public management tends to focus on managers, while public administration concentrates on administration structures and processes (although attempting to draw any line between the approaches is a surefire way to start a major intellectual fight). That makes it hard to keep those scholars together.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 5)
Niisiis, lugemishuvi suurendamiseks: kas poliitikateaduste, avaliku juhtimise ja administreerimise eristus on analüütiline?
“These are the issues that link political science’s focus on democracy, policy analysis’s concentration on methods, public management’s attention to leadership, and practitioners’ attention to getting things done. There can be no solution to any of these issues without linking them together and focusing on the fundamental question: How to manage democratic government effectively.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 6)
Kettl, D. F. (2022). Public administration and political science: Can this marriage be saved? Governance, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/gove.12724