Asjakohane oleks küsida, miks see tekst siin voos oma koha leidis? Vastus on selline: mulle tundub, et kui seda teksti lugeda näiteks organisatsioonide juhtimise, politsei (policingu tähenduses) või kestliku arengu perspektiivist, siis siin oleks ehk mõndagi õppida (või ära tunda). Kuna tegemist on sotsioloogia erialakirjandusega, siis ei ole selline järeldus vist üllatuseks. Küsimus on sageli ju selles, kuidas mingid mõistetud ja sisustatud rollid ühiskonnas toimuvat mõjutavad. Lisaväärtust võiks ehk pakkuda see, et andmed Eesti kohta on samuti võrdluses.

Kontekstiks:

A number of recent studies argue that gender norms and expectations play an important and often underappreciated role in shaping relationship happiness and stability (Cooke 2006; Killewald 2016; Sayer et al. 2011). Gender culture—understood as a set of beliefs, norms, and social expectations defining masculinity and femininity (Connell 2010; Risman 1999)—is hypothesized to shape patterns of social recognition and social reinforcement that help make romantic relationships (un)successful

Lähemale riskidele:

Gender culture shapes the symbolic value associated with couples’ economic characteristics, such as men’s unemployment or women’s employment. Gender social stress is thus proposed as a mechanism that moderates the relationship between these economic characteristics and divorce or separation.

Autorite keskne väide:

we argue that robust empirical evidence about the gender social stress mechanism demands variation in contextlevel gender norms, or gender culture.

Miks seda teksti võiks lugeda:

This article offers a new test of the gender social stress mechanism using direct measures of context-level gender norms. Our focus is on male-breadwinner norms and the effect of men’s unemployment on the likelihood of separation or divorce.

Kaks teoreetilist traditsiooni:

Two distinct theoretical traditions propose that gender norms and expectations shape relationship happiness: gender theory and institutionalist theories of marriage. […] Gender scholars conceptualize gender as a powerful social construct that deeply shapes human interaction in all contexts (Connell 2010; Ferree 2010; Ferree et al. 1998; Risman 1999), with heterosexual romantic relationships being subject to heightened gendered expectations […] Institutionalist theories conceptualize marriage as a social institution defined by shared cultural understandings about the responsibilities and behaviors it is supposed to entail (Amato 2010; Nock 1998).

Mõned järeldused:

We find that men’s unemployment is associated with higher risk of couple separation in countries where the male-breadwinner model is strongly embedded in social and cultural values, that is, where a substantial share of the population believes breadwinning is men’s primary role. […] we find evidence that men’s relative market advantage is associated with a lower risk of separation, but we find no evidence that his relative market advantage moderates (or mediates) the association between his unemployment and separation

Gonalons-Pons, P., & Gangl, M. (2021). Marriage and Masculinity: Male-Breadwinner Culture, Unemployment, and Separation Risk in 29 Countries. American Sociological Review, 00031224211012442.