Tõepoolest, miks teevad inimesed politseiga koostööd? Siinviidatu tegeleb selle küsimusega legitiimsuse tähendusruumis instrumentaalse ja normatiivse perspektiivi kaudu. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele politseinikele ja turvalisusega puutumuses olijatele, aga ka üldiselt neile, kes mõtlevad ühiskonnas toimuva üle ja püüavad ümbritsevat mõista erinevatest perspektiividest.

Kontekstiks:

“Some scholars argue that it is the instrumental function of police—that is, their effectiveness in maintaining social order–that leads to an increase in the perceptions of police legitimacy (e.g. Boateng, 2017; Jonathan-Zamir and Weisburd, 2011; Tankebe, 2009, 2013, 2019). Contrarily, some scholars argue that it is the normative function of police—that is, their use of procedurally just processes that signal concern and value–that lead to increases in the perceptions of police legitimacy (e.g. Reisig and Lloyd, 2009; Sunshine and Tyler, 2003; Tyler and Huo, 2002; Tyler et al., 2010).” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 812)

Legitiimsus siinse teksti tähenduses:

“The current study conceptualized legitimacy, not as a singular construct but as a framework of related attitudes. Specifically, we focused on the two stages of the integrated framework of legitimacy: evaluations of the police (i.e. trustworthiness) and internalizations (i.e. obligation to obey) (Hamm et al.,2017).” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 813)

Usaldusväärsus ja allumiskohustus:

“When an individual believes that the police are trustworthy, they are more likely to follow the law, accept the decisions made by the police and more likely to cooperate with the police (Gau, 2014; Nagin and Telep, 2017; Tyler and Huo, 2002). The second dimension of police legitimacy is the Obligation to obey. Obligation to obey is a feeling or a belief or right or wrong by individuals. That is, people comply with orders of the police and the law because they feel or believe that it is the right thing to do (Jackson and Bradford, 2010; Tyler, 2006; Tyler and Huo, 2002).” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 813)

Instrumentaalne mudel:

“According to Sunshine and Tyler (2003, p. 514), “the instrumental model suggests that the police develop and maintain legitimacy through their effectiveness in fighting crime and disorder in the community”.” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 813)

Normatiivne mudel:

“Contrarily, the normative model suggests that citizen perceptions of police legitimacy are grounded in the procedures used by the police when interacting with the public (Mazerolle et al., 2013a, b; Reisig and Lloyd, 2009; Sunshine and Tyler, 2003; Tyler, 1990).” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 814)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Thus, individuals who view the police to be more procedurally just also report increased levels of Trustworthiness and Obligation to Obey which ultimately lead to increased levels of cooperation with the police. Police Effectiveness similarly predicted Trustworthiness but, contrary to our hypothesis, was less predictive than was Procedural Justice. Similarly, Police Effectiveness failed to significantly predict Obligation to Obey.” (Lee et al., 2022, p. 822)

Lee, S. U., Hamm, J., & Lee, Y. H. (2022). Instrumental and normative pathways to police legitimacy: Why do people cooperate with the police? Policing: An International Journal45(5), 812–827. https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2022-0037

NPMid olid ajastule kohased ja neid kritiseerida ei ole mõtet. Samas ei ole põhjust ka eitada NPM reformide puuduseid ja (soovimatuid) tagajärgi. Nüüd on silmapiiril uued reformid (tegelikult mitte enam nii uued) ja on võimalus neid mõista deskriptiivselt, mitte preskriptiivselt. Ja, mõistagi, õppida seda, mida NPM õpetas. Praegu aga on rõhutus professionalismil ja see võiks olla heaks põhjuseks paljude professioonide esindajatele, et oleks aeg professiooni arendamise retoorikalt liikuda praktiliste arenguks keskkonda loovate aspektide juurde.

Peatükk on vabalevis.

Kontekstiks:

“In these reforms, professionals’ responses and practical understanding of collaborative relation management have become increasingly crucial (Anteby et al. 2016). By providing opportunities for professional subjects to organize their collaboration independently based on their own expertise (Noordegraaf 2020), such reforms set out to strengthen local professionalism, thereby making public services sensitive to citizen needs (Bringselius 2019).” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 52)

Peatüki eesmärk.

“this chapter examines how a specific group of officialsSwedish police officers—conceive of themselves and their conduct of work during the post-NPM reform. More precisely, it considers how they view their ability to act independently as knowledgeable subjects (Wain 1996) in the collaborative arrangements resulting from the Swedish police reform initiated in 2015.” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 52)

Rootsi 2015. a politseireform on saanud palju tähelepanu. Meedias on reform leidnud palju pooldajaid aga ka vastaseid. Nüanssidesse laskumata võib ühe suurima kriitikana meenutada ehmatust, et esimest korda väga pika aja jooksul tehti reform jõuga, st paljude rootsi autorite arvates jäi kaasamine tagasihoidlikuks ja seetõttu sai reform kuulda ka politseinike valjuhäälset kriitikat. Aga see kõik on ajalugu.

“As mentioned above, the 2015 Swedish Police reform established a single national police authority, that is, a centralized management structure to replace the former 21 regional police authorities (cf. Christensen & Laegreid 2011; Björk 2021). However, the reform also introduced new forms of crossorganizational collaborations involving other local actors with the purpose of strengthening the ability of the police to respond to local needs and work ‘closer to the citizens’ (cf. Larsson & Lundgren-Sørli 2018; Statskontoret 2018).” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 54)

Eesti suunalt vaadates jätab hea mulje politseireformijate analüütilisus; et püüti varasemaid puudujääke ületada.

“By providing local police officers with opportunities to organize collaboration across organizational boundaries independently and in accordance with their own experience and expertise (Anteby et al. 2016; Noordegraaf 2020), the reform set out to strengthen local professionalism and thereby make the police more sensitive to local needs (Bringselius 2019). These measures were intended to move the police closer to the citizens.” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 65)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Despite the increasingly centralized police authority urging them to align with the new organizations, the police officers attempt to act on their own judgement in relation to a variety of local demands for collaboration, suggesting that these partners also influence the conduct of local police work to some extent.” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 66) […] “Noting how the Swedish police reform is applied by individual officers, the study identifies two types of strategizing subjects.” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 66) […] “cynical police subjects” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 66) […] “pragmatic police subjects” (Rolandsson, 2022, p. 66)

Rolandsson, B. (2022). Swedish Police Reform and the Emergence of New Police Subjectivities. In Transforming Subjectivities. Routledge.

Harva võib kohata huvitavat mõttevahetust, kus muuhulgas piirid adekvaatse kriitika ja hinnangute vahel on hägustumas. Eesti keeles meenub kõige eredamalt Aaro Toomela vastus Jüri Alliku arvustusele ajakirjas 2018 a Akadeemias (nr 12). Siinviidatu on järg ka siinses voos koha leidnud 2021. a ilmunud kriitikale usaldavast juhtimisest (vt siit).

Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele tudengitele (argumenteerimise õppimiseks), organisatsioonihuvilistele ja paljudele teistele, kel huvi kriitilise mõtlemise vastu.

Kontekstiks:

However, of the articles included in the authentic leadership special issue, the Katja Einola and Mats Alvesson article (2021) titled, “The Perils of Authentic Leadership Theory,” is the only one to suggest that authentic leadership is “outright perilous” to a variety of stakeholders and comparable to “pseudoscience, pop-management, consulting, and entertainment” (p. 489).

Keskne, ümberlükkamisele kuuluv väide:

The central thesis that Einola and Alvesson (2021) advance is that ALT “is not only wrong in a harmless manner, but it may be outright perilous to leadership scholars, scholarship, and those who believe in it” (p. 483). That’s quite an assertion.

Piirid hägustuvad:

Instead, we suspect that they were so caught up in their role as critical theorists, that they took a devils-advocate position to an extreme to propose counterintuitive and somewhat nonsensical arguments about the dangers of ALT.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks (kuigi, vaevalt seda vaja on):

In the case of Einola and Alvesson’s (2021) recent critique, we have presented evidence that the scientific norms for rigor, accuracy, and fair representations of the extant literature in critical discourse have not been met. Instead, we contend that Einola and Alvesson have unwittingly engaged in a form of academic gaslighting through their efforts to persuade readers to discount experiential and empirical evidence of authentic leadership, while accepting a counterintuitive view that ALT is perilous for those who embrace it.

Gardner, W. L., & McCauley, K. D. (2022). The gaslighting of authentic leadership. Leadership. https://doi.org/10.1177/17427150221111056

Kuriteohirmu olulisust indiviidi ja ühiskonna tasandil on raske üle hinnata ning kuriteohirm ise tundub sageli midagi selget ja arusaadavat. Kriminoloogid ja sotsiaalpsühholoogid aga näevad siin mõndagi mõtlemapanevat ja olulist. Sestap siinviidatu oma koha leidiski: arengud kuriteohirmu mõistmisel ja mõtestamisel võiks huvi pakkuda väga suurele hulgale lugejatele.

Kontekstiks:

For many years, scholars have explored the reasons why individuals fear crime and disorder. […] Explaining the complex relationship between risk perception and fear of crime is of critical importance to fear of crime scholars because prior research has found that individuals tend to overestimate their likelihood of falling victim to crime, when compared to their actual (objective) risk of victimisation (Chadee et al., 2007; Ditton & Chadee, 2006; Jackson, 2006).

Autorid sätivad fookuse:

The current study seeks to advance our existing knowledge about the complex emotional and cognitive processes associated with fear of crime from a new perspective. We propose that Trope and Liberman (2010) construal level theory (CLT) of psychological distance can be used to understand how individuals subjectively perceive their risk of criminal victimisation and emotionally respond to imagined crime events.

Mõttekoht:

Currently, it is not clear how individuals are capable of reacting to crime events that are not present in their immediate environment. […] Recently, scholars such as Gouseti (2016) have suggested that CLT of psychological distance can be used to understand how individuals mentally transcend their ’here and now’ to perceive and worry about crime in environments where their risk of crime is negligible.

Tasand ja distants:

CLT describes how individuals mentally transcend their ‘here and now’ to experience and express emotions about events that are not occurring in their immediate environment1 (Trope & Liberman, 2010). Construal level and psychological distance are distinct but related cognitive processes (Trope & Liberman, 2010). Construal level describes how detailed our mental image (construal) of an event is. […] Psychological distance describes how ‘near’ or ‘far’ we perceive an event to be from our egocentric point of reference (i.e., the self).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Our results indicate that, although further work is required on improving the measurement of some dimensions of psychological distance in surveys (e.g., spatial distance), perceptions of psychological distance can be used to explain worry about personal victimisation.

Mellberg, J., Chataway, M. L., Ball, M. J., & Miles-Johnson, T. (2022). Psychological distance and fear of crime: Towards a new understanding of risk perception formation. Journal of Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/26338076221105899

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha põhjusel, et vaikimise tähendus on sageli alahinnatud nii igapäevaelus, organisatsioonides kui riigi-elanike suhetes nt süüteomenetluses politseitoimingute ajal. Niisiis vaikimine. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda siiski suurele hulgale lugejatele, kel huvi mõista vaikimisega seonduvat. (vt ka Albert O. Hirschman’i raamatut Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States)

Kontekstiks:

In Ireland a set of legislative provisions allows for inferences to be drawn in a number of specific circumstances, as fully outlined later. Indeed, the original Irish inference provisions (which have since been extended and amended) pre-dated the introduction of similar provisions in Northern Ireland by four years and in England and Wales by ten years.

Autorid täpsustavad fookust:

In this article we consider three significant aspects of the practical operation of inference provisions at the point of police detention and questioning in Ireland.

Metoodikast:

A multi-method, qualitative research design was used to explore legal professionals’ experiences and perceptions of the right to silence at the pre-trial investigative stage. This involved carrying out two focus groups with a total of 19 criminal defence solicitors and one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with 10 barristers, 11 staff from the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, 4 judges and 6 retired gardaí.

Vaikimisest:

The right to silence has been recognised as a constitutional right in Ireland though it is not an absolute right. 12 The same can be said of the protection for the right, often interchangeably referred to as the privilege against self-incrimination, under the European Convention on Human Rights and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

Erinevad praktikad:

As just noted, current Garda practice involves an initial number of interviews with a detained suspect where no warning about the possible drawing of inferences from silence at trial is administered, and then, potentially, one or more interviews in which the relevant legislation is specifically invoked towards the end of a detention period. This contrasts with the position in England and Wales […] In those jurisdictions, the caution accounts for the fact that it might harm the suspect’s defence if they do not mention something at the point of police questioning which they later seek to rely on at trial, and therefore the general inference provision is in play, so to speak, throughout each police interview.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

While the lack of an updated caution in Ireland may initially have been viewed as a negative aspect of the operation of the inference provisions, in fact this led to the organic development of a process whereby separate, stand-alone inference interviews are conducted toward the end of a detention period. In our view this is significantly preferable, from the perspective of fairness, to the situation whereby inferences can be drawn from any and all suspect interviews. […] Convictions in criminal trials ought not to be lightly reached, and we must ensure that the operation of inference provisions is fair and appropriate in individual cases.

Daly, Y., Dowd, C., & Muirhead, A. (2022). When you say nothing at all: Invoking inferences from suspect silence in the police stationThe International Journal of Evidence & Proof26(3), 249-270.

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst käsitleb politseimudeli institutsionaliseerumist. Kasutusel on teadmistepõhine (tõenduspõhine, vms) politseimudel (EBP) Briti näitel. Autor näitab, tuginedes peamiselt Foucault raamistikule, kuidas EBP saavutas domineeriva staatuse. Tekst võiks olla kohustuslikuks kirjanduseks kõikidele politseinikele ja kuuluda politseivaldkonna kursustel seminaritekstide hulka.

Eesti kontekstis – avalikus juhtimises üldisemalt, mitte ainult politseivaldkonnas – rõhutan kriitilistest alternatiividest vaikimise (mitteteadmise?) olulisust “tõe” kujunemisel.

Kontekstiks:

Evidence-Based Policing (EBP) is founded on the belief that following the approach to evidence-based medicine, underpinned by natural sciences, and transposing this into policing policy and decision making, can ‘improve’ policing (Sherman, 2013).

Valitsus võttis suuna:

EBP builds on the longer-established ‘evidence-based policy’ agenda, in the British context ushered in by the New Labour government from 1997 (Solesbury, 2001). […] By 2022 EBP is developing hegemonic status, dominating how we have come to see, think and act about policing (Knutsson and Tompson, 2017).

Positsioon ei ole siiski kõigutamatu:

In wider academic literatures there are concerns about the harnessing of state power to criminological knowledge (Cohen, 1981; Walters, 2003), the creeping influence of state agendas into scholarly research (Hillyard et al, 2004; Squires, 2013), and contestable ontological assumptions about ‘crime’, ‘justice’ and ‘policing’ (Hillyard and Tombs, 2007; Pemberton, 2015).

Autor väidab:

I argue that EBP has emerged into a hegemonic position in British policing for two key reasons. First, EBP aligns with wider politico-economic projects of late modernity; notably neoliberalism and managerialism. […] Second, I propose that the progression of EBP represents a new nadir in continuing and deepening the problematic relationship between the British state and the production of ‘useful’ criminological knowledge described by others (Cohen, 1981; Walters, 2003).

Artikli fookus:

This paper focuses exclusively on the ‘third lens’ of my discourse research: those important institutional reforms identified that arise from the progressive normalisation of EBP discourse.

Teoreetilisest lähtepunktist:

For Foucault (1969), knowledge requires a system of power to validate it as legitimate according to the ‘scientific discourse in a given period’. Knowledge must be ‘authorised’ systemically to acquire its ‘truth’ status, while power cannot exist without being validated by a requisite coherent system of knowledge. […] What were the moments of decision that led us to where we find ourselves presently?

Institutsionaliseerumisest:

Hajer suggests ‘discourse institutionalisation’ is observable when discourses become ‘translated into institutional arrangements’, and policy begins to be conducted within institutions according to theoretical concepts that exist within discourse. […] Discourse institutionalisation is an output of interconnected power relations that produces hegemony, drawing political frontiers of what is included and othered.

Genealoogiast:

My larger discourse analysis project illustrates EBP’s shared genealogical heritage with the wider discourses of late modernity: managerialism and neoliberalism. […] This paper describes four key institutional reforms that support this assessment of EBP’s progress in modern Britain. EBP is becoming hegemonic through institutionalised governance techniques of self-promotion that simultaneously ‘govern the silence’ of critical alternatives.

Betts, P. R. (2022). Governing the silence: the institutionalisation of evidence-based policing in modern Britain. Justice, Power and Resistance5(1-2), 9-27.

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et ergutada lugejaid kahtlema kasutatavate teooriate-mudelite vms asjakohasuses. Tõsi, iseküsimus on selles, kui palju üldse on selliseid, kes ümbritsevale tähenduse andmiseks mingeid teooriaid-mudeleid kasutavad. Ühiskondliku arengu perspektiivist on selline kriitilise mõtlemise-mõtestamise kriis problemaatiline, kuid siinviidatu sobib ka hästi selleks, et õhutada kõiki lugejaid otsima mingit perspektiivi, mille kaudu ümbritsevale tähendus anda ning mõtlema selle üle, kas või missuguses ulatuses valitu sobilik on.

Turvalises Läänes ehmatav sedastus:

Hector’s story is emblematic of how mainstream theories and research methods in criminology appear to be ill-equipped for interpreting the data I collected in Mexico. Prevailing theories of organized crime commonly depict law-enforcement institutions as entities that are, generally speaking, separated from and antagonistic towards criminal organizations (Abadinsky, 2012; Reuter, 1983; Von Lampe, 2015). […] However, the data I collected suggest that Mexico’s criminal organizations and police agencies are so intertwined that it is impossible to distinguish them from each other.

Autor selgitab …

My contention is that mainstream criminological theories’ inability to explain key aspects of Mexican organized crime does not derive from the specificity of the Mexican case. Rather, these inadequacies stem from mainstream organized crime theories’ underspecified scope.

… ja seab eesmärgi:

My aim is not to reject traditional organized crime theories. Rather, I wish to make a case for their refinement and adaptation to different contexts. More specifically, I seek to contextualize Global North theories and, in so doing, contribute to an agenda for future studies of organized crime in the Global South that is less uncritically accepting of the Global North literature.

Lihtsustusest:

The predominant characterization of organized crime violence in Mexico as a drug war derives, in part, from a Global North viewpoint. Undoubtedly, Mexico’s organized crime violence is intimately related to the illegal drug trade. However, its causes and mechanisms are significantly more complex and diverse than the drug epithet suggests.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Methodological approaches for studying organized crime are not universally good or bad. Rather, the robustness of a research design should also be appraised on the basis of how well it adapts to the context under examination.

Pereda, V. (2022). Why Global North criminology fails to explain organized crime in Mexico. Theoretical Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/13624806221104562

Politsei prioriteedid ei ole midagi enne ega etteantut, midagi “olemuslikku”. Tõsi, kaasaegne politsei on ikka olnud seotud turvalisusega ühiskonnas, kuid see on liiga üldine, kuigi paljudele ehk mugav seisukoht. Eestikeelses ruumis ei ole politsei prioriteetide üle suurt arutelu märgata või siis ei ole see lihtsalt minuni jõudnud. Paljudes riikides on politsei eesmärgid ja nendeni liikumise teed sageli avaliku arutelu objektiks. Sealjuures on arutlused argumendi, mitte arvamusekesksed. Siinviidatu on BBC Radio 4 raadiosaade, mis sel korral keskendus politsei prioriteetidele. Saade võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele politseinikele, politseiharidusega puutumuses olijatele aga ka poliitikakujundajatele.

BBC Radio 4: The Priorities of the Police

Politseikultuur on paljude politseinike arvates väga eriline ning vajalik eeskätt politseinikele endile politseiniku elukutsega kaasnevate väärtuste põlistamiseks. Harva küll laskutakse tasandile, kus arutletakse politseikultuuri tähenduse ja mõjude üle nii politseinikele kui turvalisusele. Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda nii politseinikele kui politseikultuurist huvitatutele ja oleks heaks alguseks n-ö teemasse lugemisel.

Kontekstiks:

Academic research and professional debate on policing have long sought to understand whether police officers share a distinctive way of viewing and acting within their role. The existence of what has become known as ‘police culture’ has been an enduring topic of discussion since the 1960s and continues to be widely debated today.

Mõned tähelepanekud politseikultuuri olulisusest:

The police are also typically the first state agents that suspects encounter, therefore heavily influencing who enters the criminal justice system and who potentially comes to be ascribed with criminal status (McConville et al 1991). Uniformed police officers largely symbolize and represent the body politic, and it follows that the practices of policing provide the public with some of their most tangible experiences of the state, powerfully shaping feelings of citizenship (Skinns 2019) and national belonging (Parmar 2011).

Raporti eesmärk:

The aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of the research on police culture to date.

Etnograafilisest uuringust:

Ethnography (from the Greek words Ethnos meaning people and Graphein meaning writing) is a research methodology that lends itself to the study of the beliefs, social interactions, and behaviours of small societies and groups of people, with observation and participation over a prolonged period of time (Naidoo 2012). Broadly speaking, an ethnographic approach is ‘a detailed, up-close investigation of both the subjective and the objective aspects of cultural lifethat is, of the many ways in which humans organize, live in, and give meaning to the world’ (McGranahan 2018: 7).

Kolm klassikaliselt politseikuurile omast tunnust:

Within his overarching analytical framework, Reiner (2010) identifies the core elements of police culture as including: a sense of mission; intolerance and prejudice; suspicion and skepticism; isolation, mutual solidarity, and conservatism.

Politseikultuuriga puutumuses on organisatsioonis kasutatavad juhtimispraktikad. Siit vihje:

While traditional leadership models rely on the enforcement of asymmetrical contractual relationships between bosses and subordinates, transformational approaches are based upon the values of ‘participation, consultation and inclusion’ (Silvestri 2007: 39). Implementing leadership in this way can serve to erode the cultural barriers that may exist within the police organizational hierarchy. […] Outside of policing, three arguments are commonly made for involving employees in workplace decision-making and change processes: it heightens morale and commitment, develops democratic skills and habits, and makes for better decisions overall (Sklansky and Marks 2008).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Drawing on Bourdieu’s (1990) theory of culture and practice, as well as on the work of organizational theorists such as Sackmann (1991) and Schein (1985), Chan (1997) reaffirmed the importance of examining the interactions between the ‘field’ (the wider organizational, historical, legal, socio-economic, and political conditions of police work) and the ‘habitus’ (the informal norms and values of officers).

Loftus, B. (2022). Police Culture: Origins, Features and Reform.

Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda nii politseinikele, poliitikakujundajatele kui kõikidele, kes soovida elama asuda maapiirkonda. Eriti oluliseks muutub selle teksti sisu kallineva kütuse ning keerustuva logistika tingimustes, sest maapiirkondade eraldatus suureneb. Tekst võiks kindlasti kandideerida politseikursuste seminaritekstiks.

Kontekstiks:

There is a tendency to think of rural and remote communities as idyllic settings secured by a strong sense of social cohesion, a low incidence of social and physical disorders, and resilient social ties between community members (Short 2006; Baylina and Berg 2010; Donnermeyer and DeKeseredy 2014; Haigron 2017). 1 However, empirical literature suggests that such an idealized conception is ill-founded (Hogg and Carrington 1998, 1999; Carrington and Scott 2008). […] For example, the rate of violent crimes against women and girls aged 24 and younger in northern Canada was three times higher compared to their counterparts in southern Canada and four times higher than the overall Canadian average in 2017 (Rotenberg 2019: 3).

Mis on maapiirkond?

While there is no perfect definition of rurality as these definitions are inevitably purpose dependent (Carrington and Scott 2008; Hart and Casey 2012), we argue that a more comprehensive approach is nevertheless possible and warranted for the study of people’s perceptions of crime and safety.

Operatsionaliseerimise küsimus:

Against this backdrop, we propose to examine variations in citizens’ perceptions of crime and safety across urban, rural and remote communities through a more comprehensive conceptualization and operationalization of rurality.

Traditsiooniline vaade turvatundele:

Traditionally, citizens’ assessment of crime as a problem in their c nities was understood as being directly related to concerns, worries and anxieties at the prospect of becoming the victim of a crime (Ferraro and LaGrange 1987; Hale 1996). However, findings suggest that such a conceptualization is incomplete as perceptions of crime and safety also articulate crucial social and cultural dimensions. Indeed, they simultaneously embody expressive concerns about the state of society and communities. These include, for instance, lay judgments about social order, social cohesion and values, and community stability ( Jackson 2004, 2008; Farrall et al. 2009).

Komplitseeritus:

It follows that people’s perceptions of crime and safety may be more diffused than traditional considered. Instead, it involves both experienced events of concern about crime and social judgments about the state of society and communities, socially and culturally conditioned ( Jackson 2004, 2008; Farrall et al. 2009).

Asukohaga seotus:

At the basis of our conceptualization is the notion that human activities are inevitably situated in space, unable to be disconnected from that location (Giddens 1984; Soja 1985; Lefebvre 1991; Gans 2002; Löw 2016).

Isoleeritus:

Accordingly, variations in perceptions of crime and safety should not be expected to only exist between urban and non-urban areas but all along the urban–rural–remote continuum based on the relative degree of geographical isolation.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

However, our findings tell a different story. They suggest that perceptions of crime (and disorder) and perceptions of safety in rural and remote communities are much more nuanced than previously reported. […] As the geographical isolation of communities starts increasing, we observed that people begin to perceive more crime and disorder in their environment and feel less safe. […] In other words, people living in highly isolated communities were found to perceive more crime and disorder, and feel less safe than people living in large metropolitan areas.

David, J. D. (2022). Rethinking perceptions of crime and safety in rural and remote communitiesThe British Journal of Criminology.