Kes küll võiks huvi tunda politseimudelite vastu? Võib-olla need, kes huvituvad politsei võimekusest tegeleda ühiskonnas turvalisusprobleemidega. Põhjuseid võib veelgi olla.
Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et mõtestab politseimudeleid sünteesi ja ühisosa, mitte ajaloolisest või nullsummamängi perspektiivist. Tõsi, tekstis näitavad autorid ka seda, kuidas toimub n-ö mudelite konkurents ja kuidas ühe mudeli piirid võimaldavad teise mudeli võimekusel esile pääseda.
Kontekstiks proaktiivsest politseist:
“Proactive policing is a strategy which has been adopted by many law enforcement agencies across the country since the early 1990s (Hoover, Zhang, Wells, Ren, & Zhao, 2016; Telep & Weisburd, 2012). Proactive policing tends to be heavily place-oriented, and the practice is broadly seen as an effective way to control crime and address disorder in the U.S (Braga, Welsh, & Schnell, 2015; Telep & Weisburd, 2012; Zhao, He, & Lovrich, 2003).” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 1)
Kasulik viide politseimudelite piiridele ja teisenemisele:
“The pre-existing professional model of policing is often labeled as reactive in nature and features the police taking a narrow focus on crime incidents and the arrest and successful prosecution of offenders (Cordner, 1998; Kelling & Moore, 1988). In contrast, proactive policing can be viewed as devoting particular attention to broad and multiple channels of police engagement in the local community they serve (Hoover et al., 2016; Zhao et al., 2003).” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 1)
Autorid seavad eesmärgi:
“The purpose of this study is to fill this important void by examining the geographic locations selected for proactive policing activities by both ordinary patrol officers and disorder policing officers.” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 2)
Hot-spot policing teiste sõnadega:
“In disorder policing practice, law enforcement agencies disproportionally deploy officers in geographic locations where disorder crimes are the highest, and they employ a combination of problem solving skills, outreach programs, and environmental redesign methods to suppress the occurrence of disorder crime (Greene, 2000; Wilson & Kelling, 1982).” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 2)
Professionaalse politseimudeli juured:
“The theoretical framework in the professional model is largely borrowed from classic deterrence theory (Ehrlich, 1973; Kelling & Moore, 1988). It is assumed that preventive patrol activities, particularly when carried out randomly, can deliver a deterrent effect and prevent crime incidents from happening (Cordner, 1998; Greene, 2000).” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 2)
“The research site of this study is Houston, Texas, the fourth largest city in the U.S. featuring a population of 2.3 million inhabitants. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the violent crime rate per 100,000 population in Houston in 2019 (1072 per 100,000 population) was higher than in most U.S. large cities, including New York City (571), Chicago (943), and Los Angeles (732).” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 4)
“We have argued here that differences in theoretical standpoints and sources of information collected would likely lead to differences in proactive geographic selections made by ordinary patrol officers and DRT officers. It is expected that officers operating under a community policing model will emphasize different strategies and activities than officers operating under a professional model of policing.” (Zhao and Zhang, 2022, p. 8)
Zhao, J. S., & Zhang, Y. (2022). Proactive policing embedded in two models: A geospatial analysis of proactive activities by patrol officers and COP officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 82, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2022.101972