Politseireforme puudutav võiks olla paljudele huvipakkuv lugemisvara, kuid see ei olnud ainus põhjus, miks see tekst oma koha leidis. Mõned vihjed lisan allpool.

Tekst põhineb USA andmestikul, kontekstil ja vaikivatel eeldustel, millest mõnda järgnevas puudutan.

Georg Floydi tapmisele järgnes rohkem kui 300 politseireformiplaani USAs. Kui paljud olid keskendunud politseipoolse jõukasutamise vähendamisele, siis mõned ka politsei kaitseks. Autorid lubavad demonstreerida seda, mis politseireformide puhul töötab ning kaasavad nii isikliku kogemuse kui akadeemilise kirjanduse. Samuti lubatakse kirjandusülevaadet, kuid seda tekstis küll ei paistnud. Eriti torkas kirjandusülevaate puudumine silma reformi definitsiooni peatükis, kus oli üks viide. (vt What is police reform?) Politseireformi definitsiooni autorid ei paku ja jäävad palja- ning paljusõnaliseks kirjeldades reformi tähendust väga üldiselt ning tekstis puuduvad isegi allikaviited erinevatele käsitlustele.

Mõned tekstis sisalduvad eeldused:

  • Autorid ei väida midagi, vaid jäävad “üldsusega” ühele meelele öeldes, et ei olegi päris selge, mis politseireform on.
  • Vaikiv eeldus tundub olevat, et politseireform tähendab kausaalset seost politseiorganisatsiooni ja turvalisuse vahel: reform peab olema suunatud korra tagamisele ja usaldusele. Aga võib-olla tuleb reformida mujalt või midagi muud ja politsei on tagajärg? Politsei ise reformiobjektina tundub olevat vaidlustamatu tõde. Miks küll?
  • Eeldatakse, et on olemas mingid parimad praktikad reformimiseks. See viitab jälle, et võib-olla tuleb midagi muud muuta, kui politseiorganisatsiooni.
  • Eeldatakse, et politsei tuleb ette valmistada ja varustada tõenditega edukaks reformimiseks. Aga võib olla tuleb politseinikud õpetada brikoleerijateks. Peamine oskus on uudishimu ja otsimine, sh oskused otsida asjakohast infot ja seda töödelda. Autorid väidavad ka tekstis, et politseijuhid ei kasuta tõendeid isegi siis, kui need on käepärast. Niisiis ei ole probleem tõendites.

Tekstis leidub siiski mõndagi kasulikku. Muuhulgas näiteks info sellest, et USAs kogutakse uuringuid ennetusele orienteeritud politseipraktikatest. Alates 1971. a on selles nimekirjas kokku üle 150 uuringu. Link ja viide on lisatud ning huvilistel on, mida lugeda. Oma kogemusele toetudes väidavad autorid, et reformide ebaõnnestumisel on kolm põhjust: 1) püüd rakendada reaktsioonilisi reforme. Siin on tegemist olukorraga, kus peale mõnd kriitilist intsidenti on avalikkuse vms surve alla jäänud politsei kohustatud “midagi” tegema; 2) soovimatutest reformidest sõltumine; 3) reformi juhtimiseks vajalike tõendite puudumine. Autorid esitavad ka enda arvamuse reformi takistustest väites, et tõhusa politseireformi takistused on:

  1. detsentraliseeritud ja väikesed politseiüksused (umbes pooltes jaoskondades on 10 või vähem politseinikku);
  2. politseikultuur ei ole reformimeelne;
  3. teadusliku toe puudumine;
  4. föderaalvalitsus eemaldus reformist.

Lõpuks tõdevad autorid, et politseireformid vajavad omanikku ja autorite arvates PEAVAD politseijuhid vastutuse võtma. Nad küll jõuavad selle väiteni artikli lõpus ja ei jõua küsida, mis siis võiks juhtuda, kui politseijuhid siiski ei võta vastutust.

Engel, R. S., Isaza, G. T., & McManus, H. D. (2022). Owning Police Reform: The Path Forward for Practitioners and Researchers. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-022-09719-z

Suuri ühiskondlikke reageeringuid esile kutsuvad politseipraktikad on tähelepanu keskpunkti jõudnud mitmetes riikides ning see on tõstatanud palju küsimusi alates politsei professionaalsusest, politseipraktikate asjakohasusest kuni eelarvestamiseni. Siinviidatus pakub autor üsna huvitavaid analüüsivorme ja mõttekäike.

Lugemishuvi võiks olla alates kõikidest politseinikest kuni poliitikakujundajateni.

Kontekstiks:

“In May 2020, the world watched as Derek Chauvin, a police officer in Minneapolis, kneeled on George Floyd’s neck for over 8  min in front of several bystanders (Hill et al., 2020). The video of Floyd’s murder spread like wildfire, igniting weeks of protests in the USA and across the globe. The depth of the public outburst pushed many municipalities to rethink public safety budgets as calls for defunding the police and law enforcement abolition grew louder.” (Powell, 2022, p. 1)

Autori ambitsioon:

“This paper advances de-policing research by considering whether a source of negative external scrutiny (e.g. the national protests following the shooting of Michael Brown) created a de-policing effect.” (Powell, 2022, p. 2)

De-policing:

“De-policing, defined as the normative decline in proactive police practices due to negative external sources, is believed to constrain proactive police activities” (Powell, 2022, p. 2)

Stop-and-search:

“If one assumes that police officers rely on stops to prevent crime, then one can classify investigative stops as a form of police proactivity. A stop does not occur unless the officer initiates the action. One can then extrapolate that de-policing effects, if they exist, may inhibit an officer’s willingness to initiate contact with the public.” (Powell, 2022, p. 4)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“De-policing research, so far, tends to focus on officer sentiments and crime outcomes. While useful, de-policing research may yield additional discoveries. In particular, one could direct their focus towards the events that occur within a traffic stop. Officers possess a variety of means to escalate and/ or control a situation; de-policing may inhibit an officer’s decisions within an encounter. In some situations, one may see officers demonstrate a hesitancy to use force (James et al., 2016; Worrall et al., 2018). If officers change their use of force behaviour, there may be both negative and positive consequences to this behavioural shift.” (Powell, 2022, p. 12)

Powell, Z. A. (2022). De-policing, police stops, and crime. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paac070

Politseivaldkond on teadusuuringute tähenduses üsna nišivaldkond ja politseijuhtimine veelgi spetsiifilisem võrreldes paljude teiste valdkondadega nagu näiteks juhtimine üldiselt või avalik juhtimine, rääkimine poliitikateadustest vms. Lisaks on riike, kus politseikõrghariduse (sh magistriõpe) õppekavadest ei leia palju vihjeid organisatsioonide ja juhtimise kohta. Seetõttu siinviidatud politseijuhtimise valdkonna erialakirjanduse süstemaatiline kirjandusülevaade oma koha leidiski.

Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda ka kõikidele organisatsioonihuvilistele aga ka uurijatele-tudengitele, kel mõttes kirjandusülevaate kirjutamine.

Head uudistamist!

Kontekstiks:

Police operate in complex social and political environments (Casey and Mitchell, 2007). Police leaders need to have the competences to han-dle these challenging environments (Borges, 2013). Nowadays, numerous challenges are being posed to police leaders, namely new technolo-gies like body-worn cameras (Hansen Löfstrand and Backman, 2021; Farrar and Southerland, 2015), reputational crisis like black lives matter (Washington and Henfield, 2019), and social crisis due to COVID-19 (Maskály et al., 2021). As orga-nizational reforms take place within the police (Powell and Worrall, 2021), it is of special interest to re-conduct a systematic review to address the updated profile of police leaders in terms of their competencies and expected actions.

Eesmärk:

The cur-rent study takes the challenge to update the sys-tematic review conducted by Pearson-Goff and Herrington (2014) by including recent studies and investigations from other geographic areas, namely Europe which was not analysed so far.

Metoodika:

A systematic literature review is a review of ‘a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and criti-cally appraise relevant research and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review’ (Moher et al., 2010, p. 264). The cur-rent systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach (Moher et al., 2015). The PRISMA approach entails a four-phase flow diagram, which was used to report our results (see Fig. 1).

Andmeallikad:

The search action was conducted using the following databases: Emerald, Taylor & Francis, Wiley, SAGE, Ebsco, Springer, and European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training.

Valikukriteeriumid:

A number of criteria were specified to gather the   most relevant studies. In all databases, we only   included peer-reviewed articles, published in   English, and with a time period between January   2013 and September 2021. Articles also had to fulfil   the two criteria defined below.

  • Be an empirical article.
  • Be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This   criterion was used since peer-reviewed jour-nals are considered as the most reliable sources of scientific information.

Kvaliteedigarantii:

To assure quality, a sample of articles was inde-pendently coded by a second coder. This procedure has been adopted in previous research (e.g. Van Laar et al., 2017). We selected a randomized sample of 15% of the articles contained in the final data-base. The second coder evaluated based on the eligi-bility criteria and assessed the title, abstract, and full text of each article. In the next step, we used Cohen’s kappa coefficient to measure inter-rater agreement. The interrater reliability was 0.76, which shows good agreement between the two coders.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Moreover, four new actions emerged as important for police leadership: data analytics; enhance police interactions with external entities; dealing with leadership adversities; and creating effective action plans.

de Moura, R. C., Borges, A., Morgado, S., & Ramalho, N. (2022). Police Leadership 2.0.: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paac068

Head uudistamist!

Kontekstiks: EL kui turvasaar

“One of the key objectives of the EU is to create an area of security for its citizens without internal borders. In order to achieve this, the EU makes efforts to harmonize national policies in the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) field, undertakes joint actions and aims to strengthen cooperation between police and judicial authorities.” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 106)

Turvalisusühenduse peamine eesmärk on vähendada erinevusi:

“The Security Union’s main aim is to promote convergence and to reduce disparities between the levels of development in security dimensions of member countries. Progress toward “an Effective and Genuine Security Union” has been reported in a series of communications, and Security Union remains at the top of the EU’s new Security Strategy 2020 to 2025.” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 106)

Uuringu eesmärk ja andmestik:

“The main aim of this study is to empirically investigate whether homicide rates across the EU countries tend to converge over time.2 We use the concept of β-convergence proposed by Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1992), and employ the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, hereafter) methodology on a dataset covering 26 EU member countries over the period between 1990 and 2018.” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 106)

Kuidas muutuseid seletada:

“Two grand theories in the cross-country comparative criminology literature, namely, modernization and conflict, both emphasize the process of economic development and its key role in convergence and divergence, respectively. Specifically, modernization theory, which is originally built on Durkheim’s (1951) theory of anomie, suggests that countries with a similar process of development would converge to similar crime rates in the long-run (La FREE & Drass, 2002;” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 107) […] “Neapolitan et al., 1997; Shelley, 1981).” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 108)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The findings reveal clear evidence for absolute and conditional convergence of homicide rates across the EU countries. The control variables generally yield higher speed of convergence, suggesting that the EU economic integration played a role in accelerating homicide rate convergence. The results also provide empirical support for the modernization prediction that crime rates across countries with similar development processes tend to become similar in the long-run.” (Adıyaman and Kasman, 2023, p. 115)

Adıyaman, E., & Kasman, S. (2023). Convergence in Homicide Rates Across the European Union Countries: Toward an Effective and Genuine Security Union. Crime & Delinquency69(1), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/00111287221092718

Kontekstiks:

“This report presents the results of an evaluation of the temporary, general arming of the Norwegian police force between 25th November 2014 and 3rd February 2016. The purpose of such an evaluation is to gain an overview of police officers’ experiences during this period.” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 5)

Relvad erandkorras:

“Norway is one of the few countries in which the police are ordinarily unarmed.2 Between 25th November 2014 and 3rd February 2016 this was not the case. Based on the Norwegian Police Security Service’s (PST’s) risk assessment, in which it appeared that the police could be imminently the target of terror attacks, POD, in a letter dated 18th November 2014, requested the consent of the Ministry of Justice and Emergency Preparedness for the introduction of a temporary, general arming of the Norwegian police pursuant to the Weapons Instructions for the Police, Section 10, first paragraph, letter ‘d’.” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 9)

Kaks alternatiivi:

“Traditions within the police can be divided, broadly, into two main orientations, a restrained tradition and a militaristic tradition (NOU 2017:9, 2017, p. 28) Norway has always had, and still has, an ideological attachment to the restrained tradition, inspired by the English model established during the founding of The Metropolitan Police in London in 1829 ((Ignatieff, 2005; Yesberg & Bradford, 2018).” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 11)

Relvade ohtlikkusest:

“Whilst Norway has a largely unarmed police force, Swedish police are armed. A key research question for the authors has been the relationship between the availability and the use of firearms. They found that, once the different population sizes have been adjusted for, the Swedish police fire five times as many shots as the Norwegian police. They found, further, that, in Sweden, the other party was injured 4.5 times, and killed approximately 1.6 times, as often. Also, in Sweden, incidents resulted in injury to 8% of the police personnel involved, while no Norwegian police were similarly injured.” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 15)

Hindamisest:

“Evaluation research must use scientific theory and method and hold a reflected and critical position toward its own work process (Halvorsen, 2013, pp. 242-244).” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 20) […] “An important expectation of a research-based evaluation is that it contributes to the systematic production of new knowledge. In the absence of a presentation of existing knowledge in the field, it is difficult for researcher, reader and client to see what scientific contribution the work represents (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2010, p. 123)” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 21)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“For most, carrying a weapon became, through familiarity, a habit, emotionally as well. The feeling of insecurity about being armed conveyed to us by the informants was not dependent on the extent to which they had encountered situations that could have led to the use of the weapon.” (Barland et al., 2022, p. 100)

Barland, B., Høivik, J., Myhrer, T.-G., & Thomassen, G. (2022). “As before, but safer”: The police’s evaluation of 14 months’ temporary arming of the police. In 138 s. [Report]. Politihøgskolen. https://phs.brage.unit.no/phs-xmlui/handle/11250/3023454

Kontekstiks:

“The seemingly perpetual and universal clamour for an increase in police numbers is a familiar refrain in many parts of the world. Doing so, it is sometimes claimed in certain parts of the media and in political hustings, would enhance public safety and confidence in policing services and reduce crime (Hymas, 2020; Labour Party, 2017). However, a consideration of policing in Finland may cast doubt on this often oversimplified view of police effectiveness. Finland had the lowest number of police officers per capita in Europe in 2017 with 137 police officers per 100,000 people (Eurostat, 2019).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 1)

(Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 1) Politseinike arv ja kuritegevus?!

Finland also scores a low 23.32 on the crime index (Numbeo, 2020). To provide perspective to these figures, Sweden scores 47.07 on the crime index (Numbeo, 2020) and has 198 police officers per 100,000 members of the population, and the Republic of Ireland scores 45.43 on the same index (Numbeo, 2020) and maintains a police force of 278 per 100,000 people (Eurostat, 2019).

Politseipraktikad … paberil:

“According to material produced by the Finnish Ministry of the Interior (2019), the Finnish police employ the practice of ‘soft policing’ (Ministry of the Interior, Finland, 2019).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Keskne küsimus:

“This article therefore also considers whether a style of policing that focuses upon trust, preventative and cooperative policing can result in something with characteristics similar to a planned procedurally just approach to policing.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Asjad hakkavad juhtuma:

“Indeed, during a literature review for this article, nothing was found that would suggest that the Finnish police have stated an aspiration to implement a specifically ‘procedurally just’ approach to their tasks. The Finnish approach to policing is to emphasise crime prevention in cooperation with social services and municipalities in preference to a suppression and control form of policing.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Soome politseid iseloomustavad andmed:

“Finland is currently divided into 11 police departments, ranging from the large and sparsely populated regions of Lapland and Oulu in the north to the considerably smaller, but more densely populated parts in the south such as Helsinki, Western Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa (Poliisi, 2019). The Finnish police currently number approximately 7,200 sworn officers and the Finnish population stands at 5.55 million (Official Statistics of Finland, 2022).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 3)

Protseduurilise õiguse tunnused:

“Skogan et al. (2014) provide a definition of procedural justice stating four main points. These are: (1) Neutrality, requiring equality in the treatment of interested parties irrespective of when an event may have taken place; (2) Voice, this is the provision of the opportunity given to all interested parties to express their opinions on events; (3) Trust, those in a position of authority behave in a trustworthy manner and are to treat all interested parties with trust; and (7) Respect, is the requirement for politeness and respect to all interested parties. (Skogan et al., 2014: 324–325)” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 4)

Trivaalne, aga …

“For procedural justice to function efficiently there is a need for those in a position of authority, be they police officers or others involved in dispute resolution, to conduct their duties from a position of trust and legitimacy.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 4)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The Finnish approach to policing has elements in common with Bjørgo’s description of crime prevention being a multi-agency challenge involving situational prevention strategies as well as more conventional approaches (2016). This approach may be responsible for a form of ‘accidental’ procedural justice in which the Finnish police appear to operate in a disinterested procedural manner as a pragmatic response to their workload, rather than a conscious application of procedural justice theory in its truest sense.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 10)

Laird, A., & Charman, S. (2022). ‘Accidental’ procedural justice: The Finnish approach to policing. International Journal of Police Science & Managementhttps://doi.org/10.1177/14613557221126488

Artikkel on vabalevis ja ajakirjal on hea praktika artiklit sissejuhatav ülevaade esitada väga kompaktsel ja ülevaatlikul viisil. Nii ei jäägi minul muud üle, kui jagada viidet.

Muhr, S. L., Holck, L., & Just, S. N. (2022). Ambiguous culture in Greenland police: Proposing a multi-dimensional framework of organizational culture for Human Resource Management theory and practice. Human Resource Management Journal32(4), 826–843. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12472

Kontekstiks ambitsioonist, kuidas muuta politseipraktikad professiooniks:

“In 2012 the Coalition Government created the College of Policing as the professional body for policing. The College was given a mandate to transform policing into a profession (Lumsden, 2016; Holdaway, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Pragmatism tuleb appi politseiprofessioonist mõtlema:

“This article proposes Pragmatism as an overarching philosophical framework that could underpin the professional knowledgebase. It is a flexible philosophy that can accommodate different research methods, different perspectives and ways of understanding.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Pragmatismi juured:

“The philosophy of Pragmatism developed out of the thinking of Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead in the mid-19th century (Simpson, 2018; Kaushik and Walsh, 2019). They did not set out to create a philosophical movement and disagreements amongst them led them to champion different versions of pragmatism (Greene and Hall, 2010; Hookway, 2013).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2) […] “Pragmatists argue that knowledge is fallible, contextual and the basis of a belief on which we are prepared to act (Hothersall, 2018). Therefore, is created and tested within real-world problemsolving (Greene and Hall, 2010; Simpson, 2018).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Domineerib käsitöölismõtteviis:

“Currently policing practice and knowledge is acquired following an ‘on the job’ apprenticeship approach. The accepted view within policing is that policing is best learnt by doing.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Hetkeolukord:

“The College of Policing currently promote evidence-based policing (EBP) as the best approach to building a pro” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3) […] “This approach privileges quantitative research methods with randomised control trials promoted as the ‘gold standard’ research approach and, when these are not practicable, other rigorous designs such as quasiexperiments are accepted as valid alternatives to assess police interventions (Mitchell and Lewis, 2017; Ariel, 2019).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Positivistlik perspektiiv:

“This scientific approach is based on a positivistic philosophy that argues that the social and the physical world are both are ‘out there’, external to individual, and that individuals are subject to patterns of deterministic processes that influence their behaviour leading to a series of natural outcomes, similar to natural forces acting on the physical world (Neuman, 2011; Denscombe, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Interpretivism sekkub vahele:

“These concerns represent an interpretivist account of the world which asserts that the social world is fundamentally different from the physical world, arguing that human beings give meaning and relevance to their social reality, while physical objects and forces do not (Bryman, 2016). Social reality is created and experienced within interactions that are contextualised by historical and cultural factors, whilst at the same time remaining” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 4) […] “personal and subjective (Creswell, 2009; Bryman, 2016). Interpretive research uses qualitative methodology to capture and understand the meanings and beliefs that individuals employ within these social interactions (Creswell, 2009; Denscombe, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 5)

Kokkupõrge:

“The interpretivist purist rejects the scientific approach as an oversimplification of the complexity of human experience, claiming it demeans notions of individual choice, freedom and morality (Burns, 2000). While proponents of the scientific approach claim that the interpretivist approach is unscientific and presents biased subjective opinion rather than credible evidence (Denzin and Ryan, 2007).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 6)

Pragmatism saab võimaluse:

“Pragmatism privileges the question, encouraging the researcher to choose the method most likely to provide an answer, rather than letting epistemological and ontological premises constrain the researcher’s choice (Morgan, 2007; Biesta, 2010; Biddle and Schafft, 2015).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 7)

Pragmatism praktikas:

“Pragmatists claim that knowledge is created within problem-solving situations, through an” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 7) […] “iterative process in which successful outcomes from previous experiences are hypothesised as potential solutions to the current problem situation. Potential solutions are tested, revised, and retested in both a cognitive and a practical process of intelligent reflection (Ormerod, 2006; Ansell, 2016; Kaushik and Walsh, 2019). This is not solely a mental process, it is an active process of thinking, action and reflection, it has a physical element, it is literally ‘something that we do’ (Dewey 1916p367, cited in Biesta 2014 p38).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 8)

Enda kogemused maksavad:

“In policing there is an almost universal respect for experience, it is the foundation of most officer decision making (Lee and Punch, 2004; Lumsden, 2016). Research suggests that most police officers, including those in managerial ranks, prefer to rely on their own experience or advice from trusted colleagues over ‘evidence’ provided by academic researchers who have little or no policing experience (Fleming and Rhodes, 2018; Hunter” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 10) […] “et al., 2019). The domination of craft knowledge is rarely questioned or challenged by police officers” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 11)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The main motivation for professionalising the police and creating a professional police knowledgebase is that police now operate in a pluralistic and complex society. The police” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 16) […] “need a body of knowledge that is validated and defensible to replace the idiosyncratic experiential and ‘authority’ knowledge that is the current basis for practice in policing.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 17) […] “A consensus on the incorporation of craft knowledge and an adaptation of the existing rank-based hierarchy to replace idiosyncratic experiential and ‘authority’ knowledge as the basis for practice.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 17)

McCanney, J., Taylor, J. C., & Morris, K. (2022). Professionalising the police pragmatically. The Police Journal, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X221128401

Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et tegeleb väga spetsiifilise politseitööga seonduva aspektiga: töörežiimi ja toitumise vaheliste seostega. Politseinike, nii nagu kõikide teiste professioonide esindajatel, on tööst tõukuvad riskid tervisele, mida oleks kasulik tunnistada ja millega tegeleda. Siinviidatu tegeles väga kitsa – arusaadavalt! – perspektiiviga. On lootus, et uurimustööd hakkavad sedalaadi küsimusi kajastama ka avaramalt, st toiduvalikute küsimusi nii indiviidi tervise kui ka kestliku arengu seisukohast.

Kontekstiks:

“Due to the high occupational stress, there are approximately 2% of the UK police force are currently on long-term sickness leave, the highest it has been in 10 years (2). Furthermore, a substantial amount of research has demonstrated high rates of overweight, obesity and cardiometabolic health conditions in police officers across the world (2-5)” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Kontekstuaalsed toitumist ja tervist mõjutavad faktorid:

“To ensure policing services are available around the clock, shift work, is common practice. This, however, is widely associated with a higher risk of obesity (9), diabetes (10), hypertension (11) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (12). Whilst several physiological, behavioural and environmental factors contribute to these outcomes, the unifying component is the effect that shift work has on the body’s circadian system.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Politseitöö vahetustega töö erisused:

“A police officer’s job is unique in not only its physical demand, involving periods of high-intensity activity whilst wearing 7-40 kilograms of protective gear (19) but also in its spontaneous nature and lack of designated breaks.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 3)

Autorid sõnastava eesmärgi:

“The aim of this research, therefore, is to understand the barriers and the impact that different shift types have on the dietary habits of police officers in the UK, using an online cross-sectional survey.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Andmeallikad:

“130 individuals completed the survey. However, three were excluded due to not working shifts, leaving a sample of 127 British Police Officers, with the participant demographics outlined in table 1.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 7)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Shift work was found to have a negative impact on the diet quality of UK police officers, with scores being significantly lower on all shift types compared to rest days. Furthermore, most participants said that their diet has been affected by working shifts, specifically through their increased reliance on convenience and poor-quality foods and altered frequency and timing of food consumption. The majority of this group were overweight or obese (65.4%) which somewhat reflects these findings.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 11)

Allen, K., Safi, A., & Deb, S. K. (2022). An exploration into the impact that shift work has on the nutritional behaviours of UK police officers. British Journal of Nutrition, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522002999

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis koha peamiselt põhjusel, et eestikeelses ruumis hakkab teadmistepõhise politsei (EBP) hoogsalt levima, kuid sageli viisil, mis ei jäta suurt kahtlust: retoorika kasutaja mõtestab teadmistepõhist politseid liig-lihtsustatult.

Kontekstiks:

The term Evidence Based Policing (EBP) was coined by Sherman (1998), although police utilisation of research evidence has a longer history (Knutsson, 2017). Several definitions of EBP exist, with a common thread that policing should adopt a systematic use of research and evidence to support and inform practice. Indeed, the debate around EBP tends to focus on the nature of ‘evidence; what form this should take, what counts as evidence; and, how this is best disseminated to policing (Sherman, 2015; Sparrow, 2016; Lumsden 2017; Wood et al., 2017; Fleming & Wingrove, 2017).

Autorid sõnastava eesmärgi:

Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele politsei ja turvalisushuvilistele aga ka organisatsioonihuvilistele.

A key gap explored in this paper is how perceptions and experiences of the challenges of embedding EBP vary by rank and role. […] The current paper focusses on identified organisational challenges. […] The aim of this paper is to identify and critically examine what organisational constraints, as perceived and experienced by officers and staff, are the salient barriers to engaging with and embedding EBP.

Organisatsiooniline väljakutse:

Likewise, Lumsden and Goode (2016) found that only a small number of officers felt they had the necessary skills to evaluate interventions and critically appraise evidence.

Mitmekesine politseikultuur organisatsiooniliste muudatuste takistajana:

The inherent complexities of police organisational culture may impede any efforts to implement transformational change (Cockcroft, 2014). It is important to acknowledge police cultures are not static, and indeed multiple and fluid cultures are present (Cockcroft, 2012). Some elements of police culture are essentially embedded in police forces, whilst others are more fleeting and sporadic (Loftus, 2009).

Kommunikatsiooniprobleemidest:

This study identified that specific procedures and processes about how to engage with EBP had not been effectively communicated. This hinders the development of a shared purpose and clear understanding of EBP (Silvesti, 2007).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

A key finding was that despite senior officers generally expressing a desire to embed EBP, they did not fully recognise the challenges perceived in the wider organisation. Whilst senior officers were supportive of embedding EBP, they did not appear to recognise the inequality in opportunities to engage with EBP, or the range of challenges perceived by the wider police force.

Newton, A., & Selby-Fell, H. (2022). Embedding evidence based policing (EBP): A UK case study exploring organisational challenges. Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 1–31.